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Chapter 04. Automata

Chapter 04. Automata

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Published by: kims3515354178 on Dec 05, 2009
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04/02/2012

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1
Models of Language Recognition:Automata
 
2
4. Automata
In the preceding two chapters we learned several models for language representation; formal grammars, L-systems, syntax flowgraphs and regular expressions. The natural languages are communication media, and so are the formal languages. The person whohears a spoken sentence should be able to
understand 
the meaning (i.e., the semantics) of the sentence. In this chapter we will learnhow to design machine models (i.e., automata) that
recognize
formal languages. We are not going to build a model which
understands
a formal language, but one that
recognizes
it. Here we use the word “
recognize
” in a much narrower sense than theword “
understand 
” as follows.What does it take for a machine M to recognize a language L? To answer this question it is better to think about a conceptualmodel, instead of complex computer systems currently available. From 1930’s computer scientists have investigated manymachine models, called automata, for language recognition. We will study four popular models – 
Turing machines
,
linear-bounded automata
,
 pushdown automata
and
 finite automata
, respectively, recognizing the languages of types 0, 1, 2, and 3, thatwe have introduced in Chapter 2. In Chapters 7, 12, and 14 we will study the so-called Chomsky hierarchy (after NoamChomsky), which shows the hierarchical relationship among the languages and automata.Automata can be classified into two types of models,
deterministic
and
nondeterministic
. In this chapter we will first study thedeterministic models, which naturally follow our intuition, and then the nondeterministic models in the following chapter.
For a given language L, we say a machine M recognizes L, if M, given a string x, can output “yes” or givea positive indication if and only if x L.
 
3
Automata
LOVE
Love is when you take away the feeling, the passion, the romance and you find out you still love the person.Love comes to those who still hope even though they’ve been disappointed, to those who still believe, even thoughthey’ve been betrayed, to those who still love even though they’ve been deeply wounded before.- Anonymous -Break Time
4.1 Deterministic Turing machines (DTM) 80
Design exampleState transition graph, State transition table, State transition functionFormal definition
4.2 DLBA (Deterministic Linear Bounded Automata) 98
Definition and Design example
4.3 DPDA (Deterministic Pushdown Automata) 100
DefinitionDesign example
4.4 DFA (Deterministic Finite Automata) 111
DefinitionDesign example 
Rumination 114Exercises 120

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