7. Hierarchy of the Models: Characterization
We have studied four classes of formal languages and their grammars, four classes of automata and their variations, and other models for representing or generating languages such as regular expressions, syntax flow graphs and L-systems. In this chapter wewill study the relations, called the Chomsky hierarchy, between these models. The Chomsky hierarchy reveals two importantrelationships, characterizations and containments, among the four classes of languages and automata.The characterizations show the relations between the models for the language generation (i.e., grammars) and those for languagerecognition (i.e., automata) or expression. For example, a language L can be generated by a regular grammar if and only if it isrecognizable by an FA, and a language L is recognizable by an FA if and only if it is expressible by a regular expression.The containments show the set relations among the classes of languages generated (recognized) by the four types of grammars(respectively, automata). For example, the class of languages generated (recognized) by context-free grammars (respectively, byPDA) properly contains the class of languages generated (recognized) by regular grammars (respectively, FA). The same setrelation holds among the classes of languages generated (recognized) by type 0, 1, and 2 grammars (respectively, TM, LBA, andPDA).In terms of computational capability, this containment relation between the four classes of languages recognized by TM, LBA,PDA, and FA implies that anything computable by an LBA is also computable by TM, but not necessarily the other way around,and anything computable by a PDA is also computable by LBA, and so on. Therefore the Chomsky hierarchy provides valuableinformation for designing an efficient computational model, as well as for analyzing the computational capability of a givenmodel. This chapter proves the characterization of the models at the lowest level of the hierarchy, i.e., regular grammars, FA, andregular expressions. Laying the groundwork through the following chapters, we will complete the proof of the hierarchy inChapters 12 and 15.