In Chapter 7 we saw the Chomsky hierarchy among languages, automata, and other models and proved the horizontalrelations (i.e., the characterization) at the lowest level of the hierarchy. Figures (a) and (b), respectively, are the copies of therelations among the classes of languages and automata presented in Chapter 7 (see next slide). Recall that if a language is amember of a class of languages at a lower level, then it is also a member of an upper class. If a language is recognizable by anautomaton at a lower level, then it is also recognizable by an automaton at an upper level. But the reverse of these relations doesnot hold. An upper lever language class has a member that does not belong to a lower level class, and there is an automaton belonging to an upper level whose language cannot be recognized by any automaton belonging to a lower level of the hierarchy.
(a) Containment relations of the language classesTMLBAPDAFA(b) Containment relations of automata capability
12. Hierarchy of the Models: Proper Containment