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Appendix D. Property of DCFL

# Appendix D. Property of DCFL

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11/04/2012

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Appendix D. Properties of DeterministicContext-free Languages
1.A CFL that cannot be recognized by any DPDA2. Closure property of DCFL’s under complementation3. Making a DPDA read the input up to the end of the input

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Theorem 1.
There is a CFL that cannot be recognized by a DPDA.
Properties of DCFL's
Proof (Non-constructive).
The complement of every DCFL is also a DCFL. (Wewill show this by the proof of Theorem 2 below.) In Chapter 9, we showed a

CFLwhose complement is not CFL, which implies the theorem.
Let
L
CFL
and
L
DCFL
be, respectively, the classes of CFL’s and DCFL’s. The theorem below shows that
L
DCFL

L
CFL
. In other words, it says that there is a CFL that cannot be recognized by a DPDA, but by an NPDA. (Recall that, in contrast, every languagerecognized by an NFA can also be recognized by a DFA.) This theorem can be proved in two ways, which are both interesting.
1. A CFL that cannot be recognized by a DPDA

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Properties of DCFL’s
We need the following lemma for the constructive proof of Theorem 1. This lemma,which simplifies the PDA model, will also be used for the proof of Theorem 2.
Lemma 1
(
Normal form of PDA
). Every CFL can be recognized by a PDA whichsatisfies the following conditions.
(1)
The PDA never empties the stack (i.e., it does not pop Z
0
),
(2)
when pushes, the machine pushes exactly one symbol, and
(3)
never changes the stack-top.
Proof.
Let M = (Q,
,
Γ
,
δ
, q
0
, Z
0
, F) be a PDA, where p, q
Q, A, B

Γ
and a
∈∑

{
ε
}. Notice that conditions (2) and (3) does not allow a pushing move, like
δ
(p, a,
A
) = (q, B
C
), where the original stack-top A is changed to
C
. This normalform applies all PDA’s, either deterministic or nondeteriministic. In the ruminationsection at the end of Chapter 4, we showed that condition (2) does not affect thelanguage recognized by a PDA. Here we show that the lemma is true for conditions (1)and (3).
Normal Form of PDA