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Desalination Desalination, Desalinization, Or Desalinization Refers to Any of Several

Desalination Desalination, Desalinization, Or Desalinization Refers to Any of Several

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Published by wackyboi
desalination of sea water
desalination of sea water

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Published by: wackyboi on Dec 05, 2009
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12/07/2009

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desalinationDesalination
,
desalinization
, or 
desalinization
refers to any of several processes that removeexcesssaltand other mineralsfromwater.More generally, desalination may also refer to the removal of salts and minerals,
Water is desalinated in order to be converted to fresh water suitable for human consumptionor irrigation. Sometimes the process producestable saltas a by-product. It is used on many seagoingshipsandsubmarines.Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on developing cost-effective ways of providing fresh water for human use in regions where theavailability of fresh water is limited.Large-scale desalination typically uses extremely large amounts of energy as well as specialized,expensive infrastructure, making it very costly compared to the use of fresh water from rivers or groundwater . The large energy reserves of many Middle Eastern countries, along with their relative water scarcity, have led to extensive construction of desalination in this region. By mid-2007, Middle Eastern desalination accounted for close to 75% of total world capacity.
The world's largest desalination plant is theJebel AliDesalination Plant (Phase 2) in theUnited Arab Emirates. It is a dual-purpose facility that usesmulti-stage flash distillationand is capable of producing 300 millioncubic metersof water per year.the leading method isMulti-stage flash distillation(85% of production world-wide).
 Thetraditional process used in these operations isvacuum distillation —essentially the boiling of water at less than atmospheric pressure and thus a much lower temperature than normal. This is because the boiling of a liquid occurs when thevapor pressureequals the ambient pressure andvapor pressure increases with temperature. Thus, because of the reduced temperature, energy issaved.In the last decade, membrane processes have developed very quickly, and most new facilities usereverse osmosistechnology. Membrane processes use semi-permeable membranes and pressureto separate salts from water. Membrane systems typically use less energy than thermaldistillation, which has led to a reduction in overall desalination costs over the past decade.Desalination remains energy intensive, however, and future costs will continue to depend on the price of both energy and desalination technology
Filtration:
the leading method isMulti-stage flash distillation(85% of production world-wide).
 Thetraditional process used in these operations isvacuum distillation —essentially the boiling of water at less than atmospheric pressure and thus a much lower temperature than normal. This is because the boiling of a liquid occurs when thevapor pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Thus, because of the reduced temperature, energy issaved.In the last decade, membrane processes have developed very quickly, and most new facilities usereverse osmosis technology.
[
 
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Membrane processes use semi-permeable membranes and pressure to separate salts from water.
[
]
Membrane systems typically use less energy thanthermal distillation, which has led to a reduction in overall desalination costs over the pastdecade. Desalination remains energy intensive, however, and future costs will continue todepend on the price of both energy and desalination technologyAdvantages:

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