2 H. Farid
belonged to Sennedjem, who shared his “house of eternity” with his wife Iy-nefer, their children, and grandchildren where they have remained togetherin this tiny space, undisturbed for over three millennia.A wireframe rendering of Sennedjem’s burial chamber
is depicted inFig. 1. Shown in Fig. 2 are a pair of photographs taken from each end of thechamber. The burial chamber, measuring 5.12 m by 2.61 m with its vaultedceiling of 2.40 m, is completely decorated. Nearly any photograph of thissmallroom willcontain signiﬁcant dis-
Sennedjem’s burial chamber.
tortions due to the curved ceiling, theinherent eﬀects of perspective projec-tion, and the wide-angle lens requiredto obtain a reasonable ﬁeld of view.For example, shown in Fig. 3 (top)are a pair of photographs taken fromneighboring panels on the curved ceil-ing. Given the small size of this room,these distortions are impossible to avoid. In the presence of these distortions,it is equally impossible to create a single large-scale seamless mosaic. This pa-per ﬁrst describes an image-based technique for removing these distortions.Combined with a simple technique for recovering the 3-D shape, we thenconstruct fully decorated virtual tombs. While not employed in the resultspresented here, we also propose a technique for automatically correcting forthe lighting imbalances that are typical of ﬂash photographs. We hope toincorporate this technique in future reconstructions.
2 Image Distortions
Consider again the pair of images in the top row of Fig. 3. These images wereclearly intended to be rectangular in shape. However due to the curved ceilingthese images contain signiﬁcant distortions. Note that these panels neighboreach other on the chamber ceiling. That is, the right-most hieroglyph stripin the left image is the same as the left-most strip in the right image. Ourgoal is to seamlessly join these images, thus requiring the removal of thesedistortions. If we assume that the vertical and horizontal hieroglyph stripsshould be parallel, then these strips provide a convenient landmark for es-timating the distortions. Shown in Fig. 3 (top) are 30 points evenly spacedalong the outer portion of the panel. These points are determined in a twostep process. First, a small number of points (more than four) are manuallyselected anywhere along a horizontal/vertical portion of the hieroglyph stripthat bounds the panel, making sure to choose the two points at either endof the strip. A fourth-order polynomial curve is then ﬁt to these points, fromwhich the equally spaced points are generated. This process is repeated for
Sennedjem’s entire tomb consists of several rooms and passageways. The burialchamber is the ﬁnal room in which Sennedjem was laid to rest.