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Practical - Inorganic

Practical - Inorganic

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Published by Sarah Dillard
Inorganic Practicals
Inorganic Practicals

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Published by: Sarah Dillard on Dec 05, 2009
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05/15/2013

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 SALT ANALYSIS 
Physical appearance of saltEXPERIMENTOBSERVATIONINFERENCE
1.
Colour of the salt isnoted
White colourPb
2+
,Al
3+
, Zn
2+
,Ca
2+
,Mg
2+
,NH
4+
saltsBluish of bluish green colourCu
2+
or Ni
2+
saltsLight green colourFe
2+
,Ni
2+
saltsYellowish colourFe
3+
saltsLight pink/ buff colourMn
2+
saltsSmell of ammoniaNH
4+
saltDeliquescent natureCl
-
or NO
3-
2.
Nature
(i)Amorphous(ii)CrystallineMay be carbonateMay be nitrate,sulphate andchlorides3.
Action of heat
 Pinch of salt is heatedin a dry test tubeResidue is observedafter heating.4.
Flame test:
Salt is mixed with conc.HCl and made in to paste which is subjectedto flame testi) Colourless, odourless gas is evolvedwhich turns lime water milkyii) Colourless pungent gas, turnsacidified potassium dichromate paper in to green.iii) Reddish brown gas is evolved,which turns ferrous sulfate solutioninto brown or black.i)Yellow when hot, whitewhen cold.ii)Brown when hot, yellowwhen cold.iii)Original light green saltchanges into reddish brown.iv)Pale brown changes to black.v)Green changes to yellow.vi)Residue is black in colour.vii)Decrepitating soundviii)Condensation of watevapoursi)Brick redii)Crimson rediii)Light green/apple greeniv)Bluish greenv)Green flashesvi)Bluish whitevii)No characteristic colouMay be salt contains carbonateion.May be salt contains sulphiteion.May be salt contains nitrate ion.Zn
2+
Pb
2+
Fe
2+
Fe
3+
 Ni
2+
May be Cu
2+,
Fe
3+
Mn
2+,
Co
2+
Lead nitrate or barium nitrate.May be hydrated salts likecopper sulfate, nitrate etc.,Ca
2+
Sr 
2+
Ba
2+
Cu
2+
ZnSO
4
, MnCl
2
Pb
2+
, Sn
2+
Absence of the above mentionedcations.1
 
EXPERIMENTOBSERVATIONINFERENCE
5.
Solubility test
Salt mixture + water Salt mixture + dill HCli)Solubleii)InsolubleSolubleMay be nitrate, sulfate andchloride saltsMay be carbonate sulfide andsulfite(except amm.carbonate).May be carbonate or sulfite or sulfide
Preparation of sodium carbonate extract:
Take 0.5 g of the given salt mixture + 5g sodium carbonate + 20ml of distilled water and boil this content for about 10 minutes and then filter. The filtrate is used for theanion analysis and also for the confirmatory test.
 
The filtrate is sodium carbonate extract
Group –I anions
Anions identified by using dilute H
2
SO
4
( CO
32-
, SO
32-
NO
2-
CH
3
COO-and S
2-
)
EXPERIMENTOBSERVATIONINFERENCE
Little salt mixture istreated with dilute H
2
SO
4
,observed in cold and after warming.
The liberated gas is passed thoroughlimewater.
The liberated gas ischecked with acidified pot dichromate and pot permanganate paper.
Gas is passed thoughferrous sulphate solution.
Liberated gas ischecked with lead acetate paper 
W.E or S.E + sodiumnitroprusside solution isadded
S.E or W.E + dil.HCl is added till alli)Colourless, odourless gasis releasedii) Vinegar like smellLimewater turns milky.ii) Colourless, pungent selling gas isevolved.Pink colour of pot.Permanganate disappears anddichromate paper turns to green.iii) Reddish brown gas is evolvedFerrous sulphate solution turns to dark  brown or black.iii)Rotten egg smell gas isevolved.Lead acetate paper turns to silvery black.Purple or violet colour formation.iv) vinegar smellBlood red colour solutionformation.May be CO
32-
,May be CH
3
COO
 – 
CO
32-
is confirmed.
May be SO
32-
SO
32-
is confirmed.
May be NO
2-
NO
2- 
is confirmed.
May be S
2-
S
2-
is confirmed.S
2-
is confirmed
.May be acetate
CH
3
COO
 – 
is confirmed
2
 
carbonates are removedthen add neutral FeCl
3
.
Group II anions;
Identified by using conc. H
2
SO
4
(Cl
-
, Br 
-
, I
-
, NO
3-
, CH
3
COO
-
).
EXPERIMENTOBSERVATIONINFERENCE
Little salt mixture isheated with conc. H
2
SO
4,
observed in cold and alsoafter warming. 
AddMnO
2
and heat it
Confirmatory test 
S.E or W.E + dilHNO
3
till effervescenceceases + AgNO
3
solution. 
i)
Colourless gas with pungent smell is evolved.Greenish yellow coloured gas isevolved.White curdy ppt, soluble in excessof ammonium hydroxide solution.May be Cl
-
May be Cl
-
Cl
-
is confirmed.ii)
Violet vapours appear.Violet vapours intensifyTurns to blue-black Yellow ppt is formed which isinsoluble in excess of amm.hydroxideMay be I
-
,May be I
-
,May be I
-
,
I
-
is confirmed
. 3

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