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Annotated Bibliography for Kelly With GT Comments[1]

Annotated Bibliography for Kelly With GT Comments[1]

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Published by: kingsley4 on Dec 05, 2009
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Kelly KingsleyTEAC 991Annotated BibliographyGentry, J. R. (1987).
Spel...Is a Four-Letter Word.
Portsmouth, New Hampshire:Heinemann.
: Gentry has written a parent/teacher guide to children’s learning of spelling. He
separates spelling myths with spelling realities. Gentry states that too much that is known about
how to teach spelling isn’t being put into practice (p. 7). Some of the
realities of spelling notedby Gentry are: (1) some smart kids have trouble with spelling, (2) too much focus on
is bad for spelling: spelling requires complex thinking and copying is an exerciserequiring simple mechanical ability with little brain power, (3) copying words and focusing on
mechanics don’t ensure the development of correct spelling, (4) kids learn to spell by inventing
spelling: when kids invent spellings, they think about words and generate new knowledge, (5)purposeful writing is a key to learning to spell: purposeful writing when combined withinventive spelling are reciprocal ways to promote learning, and (6) spelling is a constructivedevelopmental process: spelling follows a similar pattern to learning to speak.Gentry looks into answering questions teachers ask. The author comments that in his view, theimportant questions center on an understanding of how children learn, and the important answersplace children, not methods, at the center of the spelling program (p.27).
What method for teaching spelling works best?
Gentry suggests allowing children the freedom to take risks intheir own writing as the best technique. So in order to teach kids to spell, teachers need to getkids to write. They need to break down the inhibitions and unpleasantness surrounding spellingand allow kids the chance to be wrong (p. 27).
What teaching strategies will help create aneffective program?
There are five general guidelines for creating an effective spellingcurriculum: (1) Teach spelling as part of the whole curriculum. (2) Have children writefrequently and make the writing activity purposeful. (3) Encourage children to invent spellingsfor words they may not have learned to spell. (4) De-emphasize correctness, memorization, and
writing mechanics. (5) Respond to children’s writing in ways that help them discover more
about spelling (p. 28).
For our spelling lessons, what procedures can we use that are supported by research?
Gentry suggests six procedures that receive research support: (1) allot sixty toseventy-five minutes per week to formal spelling instruction, (2) present the words to be studiedin a list or column form, (3) give the children a pre-test to determine which words in the lessonare unknown, have then study the unknown words, and administer a post-test, (4) have thechildren correct their own spelling tests under your direction, (5) teach a systematic technique forstudying unknown words, and (6) use spelling games to make spelling lessons more fun (p. 28-29).
What is the single best strategy for a formal spelling lesson?
The author doesn’t believe
there is one; he comments that what works best for one child may not work well for another. Hedoes suggest having each child correct their own spelling errors immediately after taking aspelling test. This is effective because it gets children to examine their spelling errors visually(p. 29).
Shouldn’t invented spelling 
be corrected? If errors aren’t corrected won’t misspellings
become habitual?
Teachers shouldn’t correct spelling to the extent of making children afraid to
spell. As spellers mature, the emphasis on correctness should be increased. It \is best to only
hold students absolutely accountable for correct spelling in the context of final drafts ready forpublication (p.29).
When should formal spelling instruction begin?
For best results,individualizes and use small groups for formal spelling instruction around second grade when themajority of students are at the phonetic and transitional developmental levels. Allow writingconferences to guide you in determining when kids are ready for formalized instruction (p. 31).
What spelling rules should be taught?
There are only a few good spelling rules that need to betaught: the rules for using periods in abbreviations, for using apostrophes to show possession,for adding suffixes (changing y to i, dropping the final silent e, doubling the final consonant), the
rule that English words don’t end in v, and that q is followed by u in English language (p.31).
What is the best way to help children learn how to spell the words they miss on spelling tests?
The teacher should provide guidelines for effective word study techniques. Simply writing thewords in question a certain number of times is NOT a good procedure for learning misspelledwords.Gentry suggests teachers give spelling advice to parents because they play an active role in
shaping their child’s attitud
e about spelling. The teacher needs to show parents that spelling is adevelopmental process. Parents need to know that writing is important. When viewing their
child’s writing they should not be critical, they should comment on the content not the spel
ling.Parents should be introduced to the concept of invented spelling. Teachers should persuadeparents to make time for writing at home. Finally, the teacher should encourage parents to havefun with spelling by promoting interest and enthusiasm through spelling games.Involving the parents is an important part of a spelling program. Spelling is a subject thatparents feel very competent in helping their child. They can take a few minutes each day andstudy the words with their child and feel like
they were successful. They didn’t have to read the
text book to know how to spell or help their child to spell. By teaching the parent the way thestudents are learning the words at school, and showing them how to help their child at home,adds another component to the spelling program.
Gentry really answers some of the questions that I had been asking aboutspelling instruction. I like that he has many years of research behind his answers andsuggestions. I would like to look at more texts written by Gentry and do some furtherinvestigating of what he suggests for spelling instruction.Graham, S., Harris, K., & Chorzempa, B. (2002). Contribution of Spelling Instruction tothe Spelling, Writing, and Reading of Poor Spellers.
 Journal of EducationalPsychology, 94
, 669-686.
: The authors looked at the effects of supplemental spelling instruction on spelling,writing, and reading. They worked with second grade students experiencing difficulties learningto spell. The students were given instruction designed to improve their spelling skills. A controlgroup was used, those students received math instruction. The students who received thespelling instruction made greater improvements on norm-referenced spelling measures, a writingfluency test, and a reading word-attack measure following the instruction. They also maintained
their advantage in spelling 6 months later, but not in their writing-fluency and reading word-attack measures. The authors do believe there was a positive affect at maintenance on readingword-recognition skills of children who scored lowest on the pretest that was given at thebeginning of the study.
: There were two groups of second graders involved in the study. One group was givendirect spelling instruction involving lessons designed specifically for word-building, word-study,and phonics. The other group was instructed math following the Peer-Assisted LearningStrategy (PALS) which paired high-achieving students with low-achieving students, each childacting as a tutor to the other.The students were studied over a 6 month period. In the spelling instruction group, many of thestudents had difficulties with spelling, reading, and writing. The students received instruction inspelling varying from 25 to 150 minutes a week.During instruction students were given different measures tied directly to the three componentsof spelling instruction. Students in the spelling condition learned most of the words they studiedand retained the correct spelling for most of the words they studied. The writing-fluency skillsof students in the spelling condition improved more than those of the children in the math controlcondition. The word-attack skills of students in the spelling condition improved more than thoseof the children in the math control condition.
: The author’s findings indicate a link between learning to spell and writing
development, and a link between learning to spell and reading development. They suggest thatexplicit and systematic instruction of spelling is an important component of an effective spellingprogram for weaker spellers. They also state that extra spelling instruction may be an importantingredient in addressing the writing and reading problems experienced by some young children.Heald-Taylor, B.G. (1998). Three Paradigms of Spelling Instruction in Grades 3 to 6.
The Reading Teacher 
, 51, 404-413.
: The author takes a look at three main spelling perspectives that appear to parallelparticular spelling practices: (a) traditional, (b) transitional, and (c) student-oriented.Traditional practices are based on traditional attitudes more so than on theory and research.Instruction, drill, memorization, imitation, rote learning, and an emphasis on correctness arefocused on. Traditional practices are taught formally as a separate subject. Teachers are themain givers of information, and there is a test at the end of the week.Criticisms of traditional practices: Students who had received no formal instruction could spellas well or better than those who had experienced formal instruction. It requires tedious practiceof low-level exercises that require very little thinking, take up too much instructional time, and

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