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Grano Invernale

Grano Invernale

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Published by Orto di Carta

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Published by: Orto di Carta on Dec 06, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 1. Reminder of several requirements of wheat2. The problem of carbon starvation3. The problem of nitrogen starvation4. Growing periods of winter cereals5. Weed problemsTHE BONFILS METHOD1. Permanent cover crop of white clover2. Surface sowing3. Early sowing: why and when?4. Open sowing: why and how much?5. What varieties?6. Several problems1. SEVERAL REMINDERSWheat requires 100°C to 150°C T-sum to rise, sothe later one sows the slower and more difficult itwill be for it to germinate. The optimumtemperature for germination lies between 20°C and25°C, the minimum temperature being 1°C and themaximum 35°C.Germination occurs within 4 days in August 7days in September, and one month in November.The optimum temperature for side-shooting isbetween 20°C and 25°C, temperatures more common insummer and early autumn in our climate than inDecember or January.Prior to side-shooting the cereal seedling is atits stage of minimum resistance to cold. In effect,before side-shooting occurs, the vegetable tissueshave not yet hardened to resist cold.WHEAT is more resistant than rye to dampconditions, but too much damp causes losses at therising stage, from suffocation. Excessive moistureinhibits rooting, while very sunny weatherencourages it. Wheat is relatively tolerant of soilsthat are only moderately rich, and of fairly low pH(roughly pH 5.5 and above).RYE is very susceptible to root asphyxia and toinundation. On the other hand it is tolerant of lowpH (optimum pH about 5.5) and can be cultivated insoils of pH 5 and below. Its very great vigourenables it to utilize poor sandy soils, and itspowerful roots can explore the mother rock todissolve fertilizing elements at depth.Particularly rapid and strong side-shooting makes itvery competitive with weeds.BARLEY is fairly sensitive to low pH (minimum
pH about 5.5) and is unsuited to acid soils. It isvery resistant to drought and prefers limey soils,even relatively poor ones.OATS tolerates poor, acid soils, but issusceptible to cold, though an early sowing andcover crop increase its resistance. Despite this itis reserved for mild damp climates such as Brittany,Ireland, and Scotland.2. CARBON STARVATION: No Longer A Problema) If one considers the plant physiology ofwinter cereals (germination, photosynthesis, andside-shooting, with an optimum temperature ofaround 25°C) and the natural wealth in nitrogen ofthe soil during the months of August-September, theconsequences will be appreciated of October orNovember sowings, at a period of short days (10hours), poor light and solar intensity, andmoderately low or low temperatures:i) foliar elongation to compensate for lack ofsunlightii) expenditure of energy on the leaves at theexpense of the rootsiii) which favours:
Enfeeblement of the plant to the detrimentof the solidity of the supporting tissues
lack of resistance to disease and cold
slowing down of the metabolism on accountof lengthening of the sap canalsiv) wasting of the fertilizing elements in thesoil: nitrogen is washed out by the autumn rains’or taken up by weedsv) the accumulated amino acids causeintoxication that provides a favourable terrain fordiseases and Insect pests Thus poor photosynthesisresults in carbon starvation.
b. Thanks to early sowing, the cereal employsto maximum advantage the conditions offeredat a period of long days (16 hours), strongsolar activity, and maximum photosynthesis.This photosynthesis permits a robustdevelopment of the root system, there is nocarbon starvation, and the nitrogen isrecovered and stored in the roots of thecereal.3. NITROGEN STARVATION:A Well-Known Problem, Crucial To Cereal YieldsReminders: we know that
maximum photosynthesis occurs at 25°C
the optimum temperature for side-shootingis 20°C to 25°C
the side-shooting is the most criticalperiod for the nitrogen requirement ofcereals
the level of soil nitrogen is twenty timeslower in March than in Augusta) October and November sowings cause side-shooting to coincide with the low level of nitrogenin the cold spring soil. Thus side-shooting willlast from one to one-and-a-half months at a time oflow temperatures and is halted by nitrogenstarvation, which results in few secondary ears.To counteract this nitrogen shortage, the spreadingof soluble nitrogen fertilizer is the only solutionthat avoids poor or derisory yields.b) Sowing in the latter part of June causesside-shooting to coincide with the moment the earthis warm, rich in nitrogen, where the bacterialactivity is intense, activated by the autumnrains. Hence side-shooting lasts 8 months,without being limited by nitrogen starvation, andproduces very numerous secondary ears.Summer/autumn late winter/early spring

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