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Wada Report

Wada Report

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Published by: cooladeel233 on Dec 06, 2009
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CONTENTS Page
1. Mission 22. Introduction23. Background Information24. History2(a) Early years of doping3(b) First Attempts3(c) Tests begin to work3(d) New challenges3(e) United Efforts45. Logo46. Doping47. Governance48. Finance59. World Anti-Doping Codes5(a) Advances6(b) Revised Codes610. Prohibited list6(a) List of substance The World Anti-Doping Code711. Famous Cases of WADA7(a) Floyd Landis (U.S. cycling)7(b) Muhammad Asif712. Results8
 
1. Mission
The World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) mission is to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight againstdoping in sport in all its forms.
2. Introduction
Its key activities include scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, andmonitoring of the World Anti Doping Code (Code) – the document harmonizing anti-doping policies in allsports and all countries.WADA is a Swiss private law Foundation. Its seat is in Lausanne, Switzerland, and its headquarters are inMontreal, Canada. WADA works towards a vision of the world that values and fosters a doping-freeculture in sport.
3. Background Information
At the 2nd, International Intergovernmental Consultative Group on Anti-Doping in Sport (IICGADS) forumheld in Oslo, Norway in November 2000, governments agreed that they would fund 50 percent of WADA'sbudget. Subsequently at the 3rd IICGADS forum held in Cape Town, South Africa in May 2001, thegovernments reconfirmed this decision.This was a governmental decision and WADA was not part of the decision making process.The regional share percentages were subsequently reconfirmed in the text of the CopenhagenDeclaration on Anti-Doping in Sport which was developped and agreed by governments at the WorldConference on Doping in Sport held in Copendhagen, Denmark, in March 2003. The CopenhagenDeclaration was signed by 193 governments.For more in-depth information on how the above formula and decisions were made through the fiveIICGAD's meetings please visit:http://www.nla.gov.au/nla.arc-13674.Following the IICGADS decisions, the respective government representatives from each region onWADA’s Foundation Board have been responsible for facilitating agreement within each region todetermine the apportionment of WADA's funding by individual countries. The WADA ExecutiveCommittee Member of the region usually leads this process. This information is then provided each year to WADA by the Board Members so that each country can be individually invoiced. .
4. History
The word
doping 
is probably derived from the Dutch word
dop
, the name of an alcoholic beverage madeof grape skins used by Zulu warriors in order to enhance their prowess in battle. The term became currentaround the turn of the 20th century, originally referring to illegal drugging of racehorses. The practice of enhancing performance through foreign substances or other artificial means, however, is as old ascompetitive sport itself.
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(a) Early Years of Doping
Ancient Greek athletes are known to have used special diets and stimulating potions to fortify themselves.Strychnine, caffeine, cocaine, and alcohol were often used by cyclists and other endurance athletes in the19th century. Thomas Hicks ran to victory in the marathon at the 1904 Olympic Games, in Saint Louis,with the help of raw egg, injections of strychnine and doses of brandy administered to him during therace...By the 1920s it had become evident that restrictions regarding drug use in sports were necessary.
(b) First Attempts
In 1928 the IAAF (athletics) became the first International Sport Federation (IF) to ban doping (use of stimulating substances). Many other IFs followed suit, but restrictions remained ineffective as no testswere performed. Meanwhile the problem was made worse by synthetic hormones, invented in the 1930sand in growing use for doping purposes since the 1950s. The death of Danish cyclist Knud EnemarkJensen during competition at the Olympic Games in Rome 1960 (the autopsy revealed traces of amphetamine) increased the pressure for sports authorities to introduce drug testing.In 1966 UCI (cycling) and FIFA (football) were among the first IFs to introduce doping tests in their respective World Championships. In the next year the International Olympic Committee (IOC) instituted itsMedical Commission and set up its first list of prohibited substances. Drug tests were first introduced atthe Olympic Winter Games in Grenoble and at the Olympic Games in Mexico in 1968. In the year before,the urgency of anti-doping work had been highlighted by another tragic death, that of cyclist Tom Simpsonduring the Tour de France.
(c) Tests Begin to Work
Most IFs introduced drug testing by the 1970s, however, the use of anabolic steroids was becomingwidespread, especially in strength events, as there was no way of detecting them yet. A reliable testingmethod was finally introduced in 1974 and the IOC added anabolic steroids to its list of prohibitedsubstances in 1976. This resulted in a marked increase in the number of doping-related disqualificationsin the late 1970s, notably in strength-related sports such as throwing events and weightlifting.Anti-doping work was complicated in the 1970s and 1980s by suspicions of state-sponsored dopingpractices in some countries, which were substantiated by the former German Democratic Republic. Themost famous doping case of the 1980s concerned Ben Johnson, the 100-metre champion who testedpositive for stanozolol (anabolic steroid) at the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul. Johnson's case focusedthe world's attention to the problem of doping to an unprecedented degree. In the 1990s, there was anevident connection between more effective test methods and a remarkable drop in the level of top resultsin some sports.
(d) New challenges
While the fight against stimulants and steroids was producing results, the main front in the anti-doping war was rapidly shifting to blood doping. "Blood boosting," removal and subsequent re-infusion of the athlete'sblood in order to increase the level of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin, has been practiced since the 1970s.The IOC banned blood doping as a method in 1986.Other ways of increasing the level of hemoglobin were being tried, however. One of these waserythropoietin (EPO). EPO was included in the IOC's list of prohibited substances in 1990, however the
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