(a) Early Years of Doping
Ancient Greek athletes are known to have used special diets and stimulating potions to fortify themselves.Strychnine, caffeine, cocaine, and alcohol were often used by cyclists and other endurance athletes in the19th century. Thomas Hicks ran to victory in the marathon at the 1904 Olympic Games, in Saint Louis,with the help of raw egg, injections of strychnine and doses of brandy administered to him during therace...By the 1920s it had become evident that restrictions regarding drug use in sports were necessary.
(b) First Attempts
In 1928 the IAAF (athletics) became the first International Sport Federation (IF) to ban doping (use of stimulating substances). Many other IFs followed suit, but restrictions remained ineffective as no testswere performed. Meanwhile the problem was made worse by synthetic hormones, invented in the 1930sand in growing use for doping purposes since the 1950s. The death of Danish cyclist Knud EnemarkJensen during competition at the Olympic Games in Rome 1960 (the autopsy revealed traces of amphetamine) increased the pressure for sports authorities to introduce drug testing.In 1966 UCI (cycling) and FIFA (football) were among the first IFs to introduce doping tests in their respective World Championships. In the next year the International Olympic Committee (IOC) instituted itsMedical Commission and set up its first list of prohibited substances. Drug tests were first introduced atthe Olympic Winter Games in Grenoble and at the Olympic Games in Mexico in 1968. In the year before,the urgency of anti-doping work had been highlighted by another tragic death, that of cyclist Tom Simpsonduring the Tour de France.
(c) Tests Begin to Work
Most IFs introduced drug testing by the 1970s, however, the use of anabolic steroids was becomingwidespread, especially in strength events, as there was no way of detecting them yet. A reliable testingmethod was finally introduced in 1974 and the IOC added anabolic steroids to its list of prohibitedsubstances in 1976. This resulted in a marked increase in the number of doping-related disqualificationsin the late 1970s, notably in strength-related sports such as throwing events and weightlifting.Anti-doping work was complicated in the 1970s and 1980s by suspicions of state-sponsored dopingpractices in some countries, which were substantiated by the former German Democratic Republic. Themost famous doping case of the 1980s concerned Ben Johnson, the 100-metre champion who testedpositive for stanozolol (anabolic steroid) at the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul. Johnson's case focusedthe world's attention to the problem of doping to an unprecedented degree. In the 1990s, there was anevident connection between more effective test methods and a remarkable drop in the level of top resultsin some sports.
(d) New challenges
While the fight against stimulants and steroids was producing results, the main front in the anti-doping war was rapidly shifting to blood doping. "Blood boosting," removal and subsequent re-infusion of the athlete'sblood in order to increase the level of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin, has been practiced since the 1970s.The IOC banned blood doping as a method in 1986.Other ways of increasing the level of hemoglobin were being tried, however. One of these waserythropoietin (EPO). EPO was included in the IOC's list of prohibited substances in 1990, however the