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Sufism 1- Tasawuf

Sufism 1- Tasawuf

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Sufism 1- TasawufPage 1 of 5http://sunnah.org/tasawwuf/sufidef.html01-Mar-01
TASAWWUF
by Shaykh Hisham Kabbani
"IN THE TIME OF THE PROPHET
TASAWWUF 
WAS A REALITY WITHOUT A NAME.TODAY TASAWWUF IS A NAME, BUT FEW KNOW ITS REALITY."The Islamic Nation today is in need of good scholars who observe the correct teachings of Islam('
alimun 'aamil
), trying their best to bring back what has been destroyed of the Islamic religion over theyears and who are able to differentiate between right and wrong,
halal
and
haram
, and who believe in
 Haqq
and oppose
 Batil
, not fearing anyone on the way of Allah.Muslims of today have no one to advise them nor guide them in the teaching of their religion and the goodmanners and behavior of Islam. On the contrary, we see only scholars pretending to know something,imposing their corrupted ideas and beliefs about Islam on everyone. They are at every convention, givinglectures and talks about Islam from a narrow and limited perspective, not according to the guidance theSahaba of the Prophet nor of the great Imams of Islam nor the consensus of the majority of Muslims.If scholars would listen to their consciences and return in loyalty and sincerity to Islam without theinfluence of governments or other powers that control Muslim countries with their money, devotingthemselves only to da'wa and irshad and remembrance of Allah and His Prophet (s), then the situation inthe Islamic world could change and Muslim life would improve tremendously. Our hope is that in thisnew Islamic year 1416, Muslims in America and throughout the world will come back together in unity,linked to one rope, Allah's Rope, to establish the Sunnah and the Shari'ah of Prophet Muhammad (s).If people will look back deeply into history they will find that after the brave work of the Sahaba, (theCompanions of the Prophet(s)), Islam spread East and West and to the Far East through the dawa' andirshad of the scholars and followers of Tasawwuf (Sufism), who followed the True Way of the Caliphs of the Prophet (s)--
radi-Allahu 'anhum
. They were the scholars of true Sufism, which upholds theteachings of the Qur'an and Sunnah and has never deviated from them.Islamic
 zuhd 
(asceticism) flourished in the first Hijri century and developed into schools that had theirfoundation and basis of their teachings in the Sunnah and Shari'ah, propagated by zahid scholars whocame to be known as the Sufis. Among them were the first four Imams, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa,Imam Shafi'i and Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, as well as al-Imam Abi 'Abdallah Muhammad AL-BUKHARI, Abul Husain MUSLIM bin al-Hajjaj, Abu 'Isa TIRMIDHI. Others were Hasan al-Basri, al-Junaid, Imam Awzai' And later these included at-Tabarani, Imam Jalaluddin as-Suyuti, ibn Hajar al-Haythami, al-Jardani, ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi, Imam Muhyiddin bin Sharaf bin Mari bin Hassan bin Husainbin Hazam bin NAWAWI, Imam Abu Hamid GHAZALI, Sayyid Ahmad al-Farouqi Sirhindi, to name afew. The Muslim world has come to know Islam through the efforts of these zahid scholars who wereknown as Sufis because of their loyalty, sincerity and purity of heart.We are not hiding the fact that at that time, some enemies of Islam came to take an extreme approach,using the name of Sufism, and pretending to be Sufis while spreading strange ideas in order to demolishthe true Sufi teachings and poison Muslim ideas about Tasawwuf which the majority of Muslims werefollowing. True Tasawwuf is based on zuhd and Ihsan (purity of the heart). The great Imams of theMuslim world, whose guidance was followed in all Muslim countries, were known to have Sufi masters.Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa, (whose teacher was Ja'far as-Sadiq) Imam Shafi' (who followedShayban ar-Rai') and Imam ibn Hanbal (whose teacher was Bishr al-Hafi) all embraced Tasawwuf.
 
Sufism 1- TasawufPage 2 of 5http://sunnah.org/tasawwuf/sufidef.html01-Mar-01All courts and universities of Muslim countries teach from the schools of these four Imams up to today.For example, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, Yemen, Djibouti, and some other countries follow the Shafi'i
madhhab
. Sudan, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, Libya and Somalia follow the Maliki school.Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman and some other countries follow the Hanbali school. Turkey,Pakistan, India, Ceylon, and some of the Russian republics follow the Hanafi school. The Far EasternMuslim countries follow the Shafi'i school. Most courts of Muslim countries depend for their fatwas onthese four schools and all these four schools accepted
Tasawwuf 
.Imam Malik in his famous saying said,
"man tasawaffa wa lam yatafaqa faqad tazandaqa, wa mantafaqaha wa lam yatasawaf faqad tafasaq, wa man tasawaffa wa tafaqaha faqad tahaqaq."
which means:
" Whoever studied Tasawwuf without Fiqh is a heretic, and whoever studied Fiqhwithout Tasawwuf is corrupted, and whoever studied Tasawwuf and Fiqh will find the Truth and  Reality of Islam."
At a time when travel was most difficult, Islam spread quickly through the selfless efforts of Sufi travelerswell-schooled in the ascetic discipline (zuhd ad-dunya) required of those Allah had chosen for so noble atask. Their life was dawa' and their sustenance was bread and water. Through such abstinence they wereable to reach the West and the Far East with the blessing of Islam.In the 6th and 7th Hijri centuries, Tasawwuf flourished increasingly because of the progress and effort of the Sufi teachers. Each group came to be named after its Sufi teacher, to differentiate it from othergroups. Similarly today, each person holds a degree named for the university from which he graduated.Yet it is obvious that Islam remains the same, never changing from one Sufi teacher to another, just asIslam is not changing from one university to another.However, in the past students were influenced by the good manners and good morality of their teachers.Therefore Muslims were sincere and loyal. But today our scholars are dry and Islam is taught to them innon-Muslim universities by non-Muslims professors (if you are clever you can understand).Sufi teachers asked their students to accept Allah as their Creator and the Prophet as His Slave andMessenger (s), to worship Allah alone and to leave the worship of idols, to repent to God, to follow theSunnah of the Prophet, to purify their hearts, to clean their egoes from mistakes and to correct theirbeliefs in the Oneness of God. And they were teaching them to be honest and trustworthy in everythingthey did, to be patient and God-fearing, to love others, to depend on God, and all the other excellentmanners demanded by Islam.In order for them to reach all these stations of sincerity and purity they gave their students differentprayers (
du`a
) that the Prophet (s), his Sahaba and the Tabi'een were practicing. They were teaching
 Dhikr-Allah
, the remembrance of Allah, through the reading of Qur'an and
dua
' and
tasbeeh
fromHadith, and through the recitation of Allah's Names and Attributes in t
ahleel, tahmeed, takbeer,tamjeed 
and
tasbeeh,
according to many ayats and hadiths of the Prophet about Dhikr. (These can befound in all books of Hadith, including Bukhari, Muslim, Tabarani, Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud, etc., underthe heading of Dhikr in Islam to which anyone can refer.)These Sufi teachers (real scholars) refused fame and high positions and money and a materialistic life, notas scholars of our days who run after fame and money. Rather they were
 zahid 
and dependent on Allahfollowing His saying:
"ma khalaqtul Jinni wal Insi illa li-ya'budoon"
-- "We did not create the Jinnnor Mankind except to worship Me."
 
Sufism 1- TasawufPage 3 of 5http://sunnah.org/tasawwuf/sufidef.html01-Mar-01As a result of their decency and
 zuhd 
, they were able to convince wealthy people to build mosques anddormitories (
khaniqahs
) throughout the Ummah of Islam, offering free food and free lodging. Thus Islamspread quickly from one country to another through khaniqahs and mosques. Such places, in which thepoor could eat and sleep and the homeless could find shelter, were a cure for the hearts of the poor andwere a connection between the rich and the poor, between black, yellow, red and white, between Araband non-Arab.The Prophet (s) said in hadith,
"There is no difference between Arabs and non-Arabs except through righteousness.
"These places made people to come together from all races and nations. Sufis kept the Sunnah and theShari'ah. Their history is full of bravery and struggle in the way of Allah,
 jihad fi sabeell-illah
, leavingtheir countries, seeking the hearts of people in every place to convert as many as possible through onemethod, which is love. To love everyone without distinctions of race, age and gender. They saweveryone as deserving of respect especially women, the downtrodden and the poor. Sufis were likebright stars, shining throughout the world, encouraging everyone to
'jihad fi sabeel-illah,' 
striving in theway of Allah, to spread Islam, to help the poor, the homeless and those in need, both far and the near.They reached with their iman, the middle of Asia, up to India, Pakistan, Tashkent, Bukhara, Daghistan,and other areas such as China, Malaysia, Indonesia, etc.True Sufi people never deviated from the Shari'ah and the Sunnah of the Prophet and the Qur'an,regardless of the exuberance of the ecstatic utterances of some Sufis and some explanations that revealedthe Greatness of God and the mercy and purity of His Beloved Messenger, Beloved Muhammad (s).The main two sources of tasawwuf were the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (s) as it wasconveyed through the understanding of Islam of Sayiddina Abu Bakr (
radi-Allahu 'anhu
) and SayiddinaAli (
karam-Allahu wajhah
) who are considered the two sourcemasters of the Sufi orders. SayiddinaAbu Bakr (r) was representing one stream of 
Tasawwuf 
. The Prophet has said about him, "whateverGod poured in my heart, I poured into the heart of Abu Bakr"
"ma sab-Allahu fee sadree shayan illawa sababtuhu fee sadree Abi Bakrin." (Hadiqa Nadiah
published in Cairo, 1313 H. p. 9). Allah saidin Holy Qur'an,'
...for God did indeed help him when the unbelievers drove him out: he had no more than oneCompanion: they two were in the cave
.' (9, 40).And the Prophet said in another hadith "
the sun never rose on anyone better than Abu Bakr except the prophets.
" (see Suyuti, History of Caliphs, Cairo, 1952, p. 46).There are many other hadiths explaining the station of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. The other stream of Tasawwuf came through Sayiddina Ali (r), about whom there are very many hadiths that would takemany pages to explain. Finally, the Sunnah of the Prophet and the Shari'ah, which represent obligations,and Ihsan, which represents good manners, were all embodied in the character of the Sufi scholars,beginning with Sayiddina Abu Bakr (r), the first caliph of the Prophet (s) up until today.In the 13th Century Hijri (the 19th A.C.) a new school appeared, influenced by the teachings of twoscholars of Islam of the 7th C. Hijri, (14th A.C.). This school was a new school in Islam, which thoughbased in the Hanbali school was different from it in 'aqida. Though this school also accepted
Tasawwuf 
,it kept a much more restrictive and narrow interpretation of what is allowed in Islam than the first FourSchools.

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