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solu2

solu2

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Published by Alisen Erdogan
Thisfile contains the exercises, hints, and solutions for Chapter 2 of the
book ”Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Algorithms,” 2nd edition, by
A. Levitin. The problems that might be challenging for at least some students
are marked byB; those that might be difficult for a majority of students are
marked by
Thisfile contains the exercises, hints, and solutions for Chapter 2 of the
book ”Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Algorithms,” 2nd edition, by
A. Levitin. The problems that might be challenging for at least some students
are marked byB; those that might be difficult for a majority of students are
marked by

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Published by: Alisen Erdogan on Aug 21, 2014
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This file contains the exercises, hints, and solutions for Chapter 2 of thebook ”Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Algorithms,” 2nd edition, byA. Levitin. The problems that might be challenging for at least some studentsare marked by
 
;
 those that might be difficult for a majority of students aremarked by
 
.
Exercises 2.1
1. For each of the following algorithms, indicate (i) a natural size metric forits inputs; (ii) its basic operation; (iii) whether the basic operation countcan be different for inputs of the same size:a. computing the sum of 
 n
 numbersb. computing
 n
!
c. finding the largest element in a list of 
 n
 numbersd. Euclid’s algorithme. sieve of Eratosthenesf. pen-and-pencil algorithm for multiplying two
 n
-digit decimal integers2. a. Consider the definition-based algorithm for adding two
 n
-by-
n
 matri-ces. What is its basic operation? How many times is it performed asa function of the matrix order
 n
? As a function of the total number of elements in the input matrices?b. Answer the same questions for the definition-based algorithm for matrixmultiplication.3. Consider a variation of sequential search that scans a list to return thenumber of occurrences of a given search key in the list. Will its efficiencydiffer from the efficiency of classic sequential search?4. a.
 Glove selection 
 There are 22 gloves in a drawer: 5 pairs of red gloves,4 pairs of yellow, and 2 pairs of green. You select the gloves in the darkand can check them only after a selection has been made. What is thesmallest number of gloves you need to select to have at least one matchingpair in the best case? in the worst case? (after [Mos01], #18)b.
 Missing socks 
 Imagine that after washing 5 distinct pairs of socks,you discover that two socks are missing. Of course, you would like to havethe largest number of complete pairs remaining. Thus, you are left with4 complete pairs in the best-case scenario and with 3 complete pairs inthe worst case. Assuming that the probability of disappearance for each1
 
of the 10 socks is the same, find the probability of the best-case scenario;the probability of the worst-case scenario; the number of pairs you shouldexpect in the average case. (after [Mos01], #48)5. a.
Prove formula (2.1) for the number of bits in the binary representationof a positive integer.b. What would be the analogous formula for the number of decimal digits?c. Explain why, within the accepted analysis framework, it does not mat-ter whether we use binary or decimal digits in measuring
 n
’s size.6. Suggest how any sorting algorithm can be augmented in a way to makethe best-case count of its key comparisons equal to just
 n
1
 (
n
 is a list’ssize, of course). Do you think it would be a worthwhile addition to anysorting algorithm?7. Gaussian elimination, the classic algorithm for solving systems of 
 n
 linearequations in
 n
 unknowns, requires about
 13
n
3
multiplications, which is thealgorithm’s basic operation.a. How much longer should you expect Gaussian elimination to workon a system of 1000 equations versus a system of 500 equations?b. You are considering buying a computer that is 1000 times faster thanthe one you currently have. By what factor will the faster computer in-crease the sizes of systems solvable in the same amount of time as on theold computer?8. For each of the following functions, indicate how much the function’s valuewill change if its argument is increased fourfold.a.
 log
2
n
 b.
√ 
n
 c.
 n
 d.
 n
2
e.
 n
3
f. 2
n
9. Indicate whether the first function of each of the following pairs has asmaller, same, or larger order of growth (to within a constant multiple)than the second function.a.
 n
(
n
+ 1)
 and
 2000
n
2
b.
 100
n
2
and
 0
.
01
n
3
c.
 log
2
n
 and
 ln
n
 d.
 log
22
n
 and
 log
2
n
2
e. 2
n
1
and 2
n
f. (
n
1)!
 and
 n
!
10.
 Invention of chess 
 According to a well-known legend, the game of chesswas invented many centuries ago in northwestern India by a sage namedShashi. When he took his invention to his king, the king liked the game2
 
so much that he offered the inventor any reward he wanted. Sashi askedfor some grain to be obtained as follows: just a single grain of wheat wasto be placed on the first square of the chess board, two on the second, fouron the third, eight on the fourth, and so on, until all 64 squares had beenfilled. What would the ultimate result of this algorithm have been?3

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