This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword

Like this

Share on social networks

15Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

Analytical Dynamics: Lagrange’s Equation and its Application – A Brief IntroductionRatings:

(0)|Views: 1,438|Likes: 28

Published by Dan Stutts

This document is a brief introduction to the calculus of variations and its application in the field of analytical dynamics. The Euler-Lagrange equation and the extended Lagrange equation are derived, and examples of application given. The concept of constrained minimization via the method of Lagrange Multipliers is also presented.

This document is a brief introduction to the calculus of variations and its application in the field of analytical dynamics. The Euler-Lagrange equation and the extended Lagrange equation are derived, and examples of application given. The concept of constrained minimization via the method of Lagrange Multipliers is also presented.

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/23747735/Analytical-Dynamics-Lagrange-s-Equation-and-its-Application-A-Brief-Introduction

05/11/2014

text

original

Analytical Dynamics: Lagrange’s Equation and itsApplication – A Brief Introduction

D. S. Stutts, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Mechanical EngineeringMissouri University of Science and TechnologyRolla, MO 65409-0050January 24, 2011

∗

∗

Corrected typo in Equation (6) – thanks, Shantanu!

1

©

Dr. Daniel S. Stutts, 1995 – 2011All Rights Res.

1 THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS

1 The Calculus of Variations

The calculus of variations is an extensive subject, and there are many ﬁne references which present adetailed development of the subject –

see Bibliography

. The purpose of this addendum is do provide abrief background in the theory behind Lagrange’s Equations. Fortunately, complete understanding of thistheory is not

absolutely necessary

to use Lagrange’s equations, but a

basic

understanding of variationalprinciples can greatly increase your mechanical modeling skills.

1.1 Extremum of an Integral – The Euler-Lagrange Equation

Given the Integral of a functional (a function of functions) of the form

I

(

) =

t

2

t

1

F

(

U,

˙

U,t

)

dt,

(1)where t

1

, and t

2

are arbitrary,

is a small positive, real constant, and U and˙

U

are given by

U

(

t

) =

u

(

t

) +

η

(

t

)

,

and˙

U

(

t

) = ˙

u

(

t

) +

˙

η

(

t

)

.

(2)The functions

U

, and

u

may be thought of as describing the possible positions of a dynamical systembetween the two instants in time, t

1

, and t

2

, where

u

(

t

) represents the position when the integral de-scribed by Equation (1) is stationary, i.e. where it is an extremum, and

U

(

t

) is

u

(

t

) plus a

variation

η

(

t

).The function

U

(

t

η

(

t

) is

indepen-dent

of

u

(

t

), and we will assume that a

unique

function renders (1) an extremum. The reasons for theseassumptions will become clear below. The important point so far is that have not made any restrictivestatements about

I

(

) other than it is an integral of a functional of the functions

U

(

t

) and˙

U

(

t

). We willnow specify that the functions

u

(

t

), and

η

(

t

) are of class C

2

. That is, they possess continuous secondderivatives with respect to

t

. Further, let us stipulate that

η

(

t

) must vanish at

t

=

t

1

, and

t

=

t

2

. Inother words,

u

(

t

) and

U

(

t

) coincide at the end points of the interval [ t

1

, t

2

], where t

1

, and t

2

are

arbitrary

.Now that we have the stage more or less set up, lets see what rules the functional

F

(

U,

˙

U,t

u

(

t

) renders

I

stationary, hence,we know this occurs when

U

(

t

) =

u

(

t

), or

u

(

t

), and variation

η

(

t

).Thus, assuming that t

1

, and t

2

are not functions of

, we set the ﬁrst derivative of

I

(

) equal to zero.

dI

(

)

d

=0

=

t

2

t

1

dF d

(

U,

˙

U,t

)

dt

= 0

.

(3)2

©

Dr. Daniel S. Stutts, 1995 – 2011All Rights Res.

1 THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS

However,

dF d

(

U,

˙

U,t

) =

∂F ∂U ∂U ∂

+

∂F ∂

˙

U ∂

˙

U ∂,

= 0, we have

dI

(

)

d

=0

=

t

2

t

1

∂F ∂uη

+

∂F ∂

˙

u

˙

η

dt

= 0

.

dI

(

)

d

=0

=

t

2

t

1

η

(

t

)

∂F ∂u

−

ddt∂F ∂

˙

u

dt

+

∂F ∂

˙

uη

(

t

)

t

2

t

1

= 0

.

η

(

t

1

) =

η

(

t

2

) = 0, which leaves

dI

(

)

d

=0

=

t

2

t

1

η

(

t

)

∂F ∂u

−

ddt∂F ∂

˙

u

dt

= 0

.

(7)By the fundamental theorem of the calculus of variations [1], since

η

(

t

) is arbitrary except at the endpoints t

1

, and t

2

, we must have, in general

dI

(

)

d

=0

=

∂F ∂u

−

ddt∂F ∂

˙

u

= 0

.

(8)Equation (8) is known as the Euler-Lagrange equation. It speciﬁes the conditions on the functional

F

toextremize the integral

I

(

I

(

) may be (1) maxi-mum, (2) minimum, or (3) an inﬂection point – i.e. neither maximum, nor minimum. In fact, there is noguarantee of the existence of a

global

extremum; the integral may be only locally extreme for

small

valuesof

. The determination of the nature of the stationary condition of

I

(

) for the general case is beyondthe scope of this document. Let it suﬃce to say that for

every

case considered in this class,

I

(

) will be

globally minimum

when

δI

=

dI

(

)

d

=0

=

t

2

t

1

∂F ∂uη

+

∂F ∂

˙

u

˙

η

dt

=

t

2

t

1

∂F ∂uδu

+

∂F ∂

˙

uδ

˙

u

dt

= 0

,

(9)where

δu

=

η

is the

variation

of

u

, and [2],

ddtδu

=

ddt

(

η

) =

˙

η

=

δdudt

=

δ

˙

u.

δI

=

t

2

t

1

∂F ∂u

−

ddt∂F ∂

˙

u

δudt,

(11)with the stipulation, as before, that

δu

(

t

1

) =

δu

(

t

2

) = 0.3

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.

1 hundred reads

1 thousand reads

Francesco Castellani liked this

Farhana Khadim liked this

Derrick Senyo liked this

jlbalb liked this

murkxp liked this

JIMI H liked this

jshah_ali liked this

Abe Bea liked this

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

The Practical Model Calculator

Differential Eqn - Ordinary Differential Equations

The Mathematical Theory of Eclipses, Buchanan

Lecture Notes on Descriptional Complexity and Randomness

Symmetry and Complexity the Spirit and Beauty of Nonlinear Science

A Game Theoretical Model of Society

Lecture NotesMinle p

101 Creative Problem Solving Techniques by James m. Higgins

The Finite Element Method Using MATLAB - Kwon and Bang

9c- Geometric Dimension Ing & Tolerancing (Part 3)

Ordinary Difrential E_Scilab

Analytic Number Theory- Y. Motohashi

Coordinate Geometry

Hyper Complex Numbers in Geometry and Physics

Introduction to the Theory of Fourier's Series and Integrals

Print Culture of Architecture

Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education_1

110

Principles of Mathematical Analysis- Third Edition- Walter Rudin

The Future of Complexity- Conceiving a Better Way to Understand Order and Chaos

Theory of Equations

Hyperbolic Functions

Logical Puzzle

Computer Hardware

Computing Tables and Formulae

Dynamics

14672460-vedic-maths

Complex Variables, Introduction, and Applications

Wikibooks - Calculus

Mathematica Programming - Advanced Intro

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd