July 199920TH ANNIVERSARYSmall Animal/Exotics
tion alone was performed. The use of lasers in veterinary surgery was alsoinstituted; carbon dioxide, neodymi-um-yttrium-aluminum-garnet, andargon lasers were used for the re-moval of cutaneous tumors, treat-ment of perianal fistulas, and treat-ment of glaucoma, respectively.
Large wound defects are now com-monly closed with innovative localtransposition flaps and free-tissuetransfers. Pavletic was able to transferlarge vascularized segments of skin insingle stages without the necessity of a secondary procedure
; during the1980s and 1990s, at least 11 of theseaxial pattern flaps were described.Because direct cutaneous flaps couldnot reach all areas of the body, sever-al veterinary microsurgeons trans-ferred cutaneous or myocutaneousfree flaps to distant recipient sites,usually over joint surfaces or distalextremities with shear-type injuries.
Severe distal degloving injuries weretreated by using segments of existingdigital pads to reconstruct weight-bearing metatarsal and metacarpalpads, allowing salvage of limbs thatpreviously would have been ampu-tated.
Major advances have been madeduring the past 20 years in under-standing gastric dilatation-volvulus(GDV). Free-radical scavengers wereused to reduce gastric ischemia.
Epi-demiologic work by Glickman dem-onstrated a genetic predispositiontoward GDV in Great Danes andIrish setters with a high thoracic orabdominal height:width ratio.
Dogsfed once daily were reportedly twiceas likely to develop GDV compared with those fed twice daily.
Many successful surgical techniques weredeveloped for the prevention of GDV, including circumcostal (Fal-lah), incisional (McCoy), belt-loop(Whitney), and ventral midline(Meyer-Lindenburg) gastropexy.
The first descriptions of subtotalcolectomy for surgical managementof idiopathic megacolon (IM) in cats were provided by Bright and Rosenin the early 1980s. This procedureremains popular for cats with medi-cally refractory cases of IM. Openperitoneal drainage was studied by several surgeons in the mid-1980sand is now commonly used to treatsevere septic peritonitis in small ani-mals. White and Williams describedan efficacious prostatic omentaliza-tion technique for managing recur-rent prostatic abscesses and cysts thatgave better results than did previous-ly described techniques.
In 1979, portosystemic shunts indogs and cats were introduced by Breznock, who later described theanatomic categories of shunts, ex-plained the pathophysiology andmedical management of the disease,and established the guidelines forportal pressures during ligation.
A slow occlusion device was subse-quently used by Vogt and Krawinkelin 1993 that lowered the morbidity associated with partial portosystemicshunt occlusion.The first successful feline renaltransplants were reported by Gregory and Gourley in 1987. Since theseinitial transplants, morbidity andmortality associated with renal trans-plantation in cats has been greatly re-duced. There are currently at least sixcenters in the United States that per-
Anything for Love.
The increasingvalue owners are placing on theirpets
companionship is evidentby the amount of money they are willing to spend on veterinary careto keep them healthy. In just 5years
from 1991 to 1996
annual spending on veterinary care for cats and dogs rose from$7 to $11 billion.
The Wave of the Future?
Asowners demand more advancedand specialized care for their pets,the veterinary profession hasneeded to adjust accordingly.In 1985, there were only 2261veterinary specialists in the UnitedStates; today, 6293 veterinariansspecialize in an ever-growingnumber of fields.
According to the American Veterinary Medical Association.
Comprehensive pain control is developed in small animals
Surgical lasers are first used in veterinary medicine
form this sophisticated procedure, with many patients having good toexcellent results.In 1995, Matthews and Sukhianimade a significant contributioninthe management of perianal fistulas with the disclosure that cyclosporine was effective in improving lesions inalmost 100% of dogs treated, elimi-nating the need for surgery in half of the patients.
Alternative Teaching Methods
In the early 1990s, in response toincreased attention to the ethical useof animals in veterinary curricula,psychomotor skills laboratories wereimplemented to develop students
technical skills in the laboratory be-fore working on live animals andcadavers were substituted for live an-imals when possible. Several educa-
Prepubertal gonadectomy in dogs is first described
First use of gradual occlusion ring for portosystemic shunts Synthetic models for instruction of psychomotor skills are developed
Risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus are first described