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Multimeter 2007

Multimeter 2007



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Published by: samia on Dec 07, 2009
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Faculty of Engineering
Name: Samia Ahmed Youssef AhmedDepartment: Electrical Engineering
Scientists originally usedgalvanometersto measure current. A galvanometer may bewired to measure resistance (given a known voltage source) or voltage (given a fixedresistance). While appropriate for primitive lab use, switching from one setup toanother is inconvenient in the field.
Multimeters were invented in the early 1920s asradioreceivers and other vacuum tubeelectronic devices became more common. The invention of the first multimeter is attributed to Post Office engineer Donald Macadie, who became dissatisfied withhaving to carry many separate instruments required for the maintenance of thetelecommunication circuits. Macadie invented an instrument which could measureamps, volts and ohms, so the multifunctional meter was then namedAvometer . Themeter comprised a galvanometer, voltage and resistance references, and a switch toselect the appropriate circuit for the input under test.Macadie took his idea to the Automatic Coil Winder and Electrical EquipmentCompany (ACWEEC, founded probably in 1923). The first AVO was put on sale in1923, and although it was initially aDC-only instrument many of its featuresremained almost unaltered right through to the last Model 8.As modern systems become more complicated, the multimeter is becoming morecomplex or may be supplemented by more specialized equipment in a technician'stoolkit. For example, where a general-purpose multimeter might only test for short-circuits, conductor resistance and some coarse measure of insulation quality, amodern technician may use a hand-held analyzer to test several parameters in order to validate the performance of a network cable.
Quantities measured
Contemporary multimeters can measure many quantities. The common ones are:
Resistanceinohms. Additionally, multimeters may also measure:
Temperaturein degreesCelsiusor Fahrenheit. Digital multimeters may also include circuits for :
Continuitythat beepswhen a circuitconducts.
DiodesandTransistorsVarious sensors can be attached to multimeters to take measurements such as:
The resolution of a multimeter is often specified in "digits" of resolution. For example, the term 5½ digit refers to the number of digits displayed on the readout of a multimeter .By convention, a half digit can display either a zero or a one, while a three-quartersdigit can display a numeral higher than a one but not nine. Commonly, a three-quarters digit refers to a maximum value of 3 or 5. The fractional digit is always themost significant digit in the displayed value. A 5½ digit multimeter would have fivefull digits that display values from 0 to 9 and one half digits that could only display 0or 1. Such a meter could show positive or negative values from 0 to 199,999. A 3¾digit meter can display a quantity from 0 to 3,999 or 5,999, depending on themanufacturer .While a digital display can easily be extended in precision, the extra digits are of novalue if not accompanied by care in the design and calibration of the analog portionsof the multimeter. Meaningful high-resolution measurements require a goodunderstanding of the instrument specifications, good control of the measurementconditions, and traceability of the calibration of the instrument.Specifying "display counts" is another way to specify the resolution. Display countsgive the largest number, or the largest number plus one (so the count number looksnicer) the multimeter' display can show, ignoring adecimal separator . For example, a5½ digit multimeter can also be specified as a 199999 display count or 200000display count multimeter .Often the display count is just called the count in multimeter specifications. In somedesigns the underlying analog-to-digital converter mechanism may have more or lessdigits of precision than displayed.
Resolution of analog multimeters is limited by the width of the scale pointer,vibration of the pointer, the accuracy of printing of scales, zero calibration, number of ranges, and errors due to non-horizontal use of the mechanical display. Accuracyof readings obtained is also often compromised by miscounting division markings,errors in mental arithmetic, parallaxobservation errors, and less than perfecteyesight. Mirrored scales and larger meter movements are used to improveresolution; two and a half to three digits equivalent resolution is usual (and may beadequate for the limited precision actually necessary for most measurements.(Resistance measurements, in particular, are of low precision due to the typicalresistance measurement circuit which compresses the scale heavily at the higher resistance values.

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