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The Art of War by Jomini, Henri, baron, 1779-1869

The Art of War by Jomini, Henri, baron, 1779-1869

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THE
ART OF WAR
BY
BARON DE JOMINI,

GENERAL AND AID-DE-CAMP OF THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA.
A New Edition, with Appendices and Maps.
TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH

BY
Capt. G.H. MENDELL,
CORPS OF TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY,
AND
Lieut. W.P. CRAIGHILL,
CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY.
[Pg 6]
Originally published in 1862
[Pg 7]
PREFACE

In the execution of any undertaking there are extremes on either hand which are alike to be avoided. The rule
holds in a special manner in making a translation. There is, on the one side, the extreme of too rigid
adherence, word for word and line for line, to the original, and on the other is the danger of using too free a
pen. In either case the sense of the author may not be truly given. It is not always easy to preserve a proper
mean between these extremes. The translators of Jomini's Summary of the Principles of the Art of War have
endeavored to render their author into plain English, without mutilating or adding to his ideas, attempting no
display and making no criticisms.

THE ART OF WAR
1

To persons accustomed to read for instruction in military matters, it is not necessary to say a word with
reference to the merits of Jomini. To those not thus accustomed heretofore, but who are becoming more
interested in such subjects, (and this class must include the great mass of the American public,) it is sufficient
to say, and it may be said with entire truth, that General Jomini is admitted by all competent judges to be one
of the ablest military critics and historians of this or any other day.

The translation now presented to the people has been made with the earnest hope and the sincere expect[Pg
8]ation of its proving useful. As the existence of a large, well-instructed standing army is deemed
incompatible with our institutions, it becomes the more important that military information be as extensively
diffused as possible among the people. If by the present work the translators shall find they have contributed,
even in an inconsiderable degree, to this important object, they will be amply repaid for the care and labor
expended upon it.

To those persons to whom the study of the art of war is a new one, it is recommended to begin at the article
"Strategy," Chapter III., from that point to read to the end of the Second Appendix, and then to return to
Chapters I. and II. It should be borne in mind that this subject, to be appreciated, must be studied, map in
hand: this remark is especially true of strategy. An acquaintance with the campaigns of Napoleon I. is quite
important, as they are constantly referred to by Jomini and by all other recent writers on the military art.

U.S. Military Academy,
West Point, N.Y.
January, 1862.

[Pg 9]
CONTENTS.

TRANSLATORS' PREFACE.
CONTENTS.
DEFINITIONS OF THE BRANCHES OF THE ART OF WAR.

CHAPTER I. THE RELATION OF DIPLOMACY TO WAR.

ART. I.\u2014Offensive Wars to Recover Rights.
ART. II.\ue000Wars which are Politically Defensive, and Offensive in a Military View.
ART. III.\ue001Wars of Expediency.
ART. IV.\ue002Wars with or without Allies.
ART. V.\ue003Wars of Intervention.
ART. VI.\ue004Wars of Invasion, through a Desire of Conquest or for other Causes.
ART. VII.\ue005Wars of Opinion.
ART. VIII.\ue006National Wars.
ART. IX.\ue007Civil and Religious Wars.
ART. X.\ue008Double Wars, and the Danger of Undertaking Two at the Same Time.

CHAPTER II. MILITARY POLICY.
ART. XI.\ue009Military Statistics and Geography.
ART. XII.\ue00aDifferent Causes which have an Influence over the Success of a War.
ART. XIII.\ue00bThe Military Institutions of States.ART. XIII.\ue00cThe Military Institutions of States.

[Pg 10]ART. XIV.\ue00dThe Command of Armies and the Supreme Control of Operations.
ART. XV.\ue00eThe Military Spirit of Nations and the Morale of Armies.
The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Art of War, by Baron De Jomini.
PREFACE
2

CHAPTER III.\ue00fSTRATEGY.
Definition of Strategy and Tactics.
THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF WAR.
ART. XVI.\ue010The System of Offensive or Defensive Operations.
ART. XVII.\ue011The Theater of Operations.
ART. XVIII.\ue012Bases of Operations.
ART. XIX.\ue013Strategic Lines and Points, Decisive Points of the Theater of War, and Objective Points of
Operation.
ART. XX.\ue014Fronts of Operations, Strategic Fronts, Lines of Defense, and Strategic Positions.
ART. XXI.\ue015Zones and Lines of Operations.
ART. XXII.\ue016Strategic Lines of Maneuver.
ART. XXIII.\ue017Means of Protecting Lines of Operations by Temporary Bases or Strategic Reserves.
ART. XXIV.\ue018The Old and New Systems of War.
ART. XXV.\ue019Depots of Supply, and their Relations to Operations.
ART. XXVI.\ue01aFrontiers, and their Defense by Forts and Intrenched Lines.\ue01bWars of Sieges.
ART. XXVII.\ue01cIntrenched Camps and T\u00eates de Ponts in their Relation to Strategy.
ART. XXVIII.\ue01dStrategic Operations in Mountainous Countries.
ART. XXIX.\ue01eGrand Invasions and Distant Expeditions.
Epitome of Strategy.

[Pg 11]CHAPTER IV. GRAND TACTICS AND BATTLES.

ART. XXX.—Positions and Defensive Battles.
ART. XXXI.—Offensive Battles and Orders of Battle.
ART. XXXII.—Turning Maneuvers, and Too Extended Movements in Battle.
ART. XXXIII.—Unexpected Meeting of Two Armies on the March.
ART. XXXIV.—Surprises of Armies.
ART. XXXV.—Attack of Cities, Intrenched Camps or Lines, and Coups de Main generally.

CHAPTER V. SEVERAL OPERATIONS OF A MIXED CHARACTER, WHICH ARE PARTLY IN
THE DOMAIN OF STRATEGY AND PARTLY OF TACTICS.
ART. XXXVI.—Diversions and Great Detachments.
ART. XXXVII.—Passage of Rivers and other Streams.
ART. XXXVIII.—Retreats and Pursuits.
ART. XXXIX.—Cantonments and Winter Quarters.
ART. XL.—Descents, or Maritime Expeditions.

CHAPTER VI. LOGISTICS, OR THE PRACTICAL ART OF MOVING ARMIES.
ART. XLI.—A few Remarks on Logistics in general.
ART. XLII.—Reconnoissances, and other Means of Gaining Accurate Information of the
Enemy's Movements.

[Pg 12]CHAPTER VII. FORMATION AND EMPLOYMENT OF TROOPS FOR BATTLE.

ART. XLIII—Posting Troops in Line of Battle.
ART. XLIV.—Formation and Employment of Infantry.
ART. XLV.—-Formation and Employment of Cavalry.
ART. XLVI.—-Formation and Employment of Artillery.
ART. XLVII.—Employment of the Three Arms together.
CONCLUSION.
SUPPLEMENT.
APPENDIX.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Art of War, by Baron De Jomini.
CONTENTS.
3

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