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Reproductive Health Definition of Terms: HEALTH – State of Physical,

Reproductive Health Definition of Terms: HEALTH – State of Physical,

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Published by: maj on Dec 07, 2009
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Reproductive HealthDefinition of terms:HEALTH – state of physical, mental, social well – being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH – addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system atall stages of life.REPRODUCTION – biological process where a new individual is produced.PHILIPPINE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH (Cairo, Egypt – 1994)-Established by the AO 1-As.1998 by DOH-AO 43, s.1999
Was issued adopting reproductive health policy to integrate reproductive healthservices in all health facilities as part of basic package of health services andthus ensuring more efficient and effective referral system from primary totertiary, public and private facilities.Main Objectives:1.Reducing maternal mortality rate.2.Reducing child mortality.3.Halting and reserving spread of HIV and AIDS*HIV – blood transfusion, trans – placental, sexual intercourse.- Abstinence- Be faithful- Condom- Drug avoidance- Education campaign- F*** yourself 4.Increasing access to reproductive health information and services. TEN ELEMENTS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH1.Family planning.2.Prevention and management of reproductive tract infections (RIH) including STI’s andHIV/AIDS.*Benzathine penicillin3.Maternal and child health nutrition (MSC & N).4.Adolescent reproductive health (ARH).5.Prevention and management of abortion and its complications (PMAC).6.Education and counseling on sexuality and sexual health, men’s reproductive health(MRH) and involvement.7.Prevention and management of breast and reproductive tract cancers and othergynecological conditions.8.Violence against women and children (VAW).9. Prevention and management of infertility and sexual dysfunction. THE MENSTRUAL CYLCE / FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLEA.Purpose: to bring an ovum to maturity and renew a uterine tissue bed that will beresponsible for its growth should it be fertilized.B.Definition of Terms:CLIMACTERIC – period of a woman’s life when she is passing from a reproductive to anon – reproductive state, with regression of ovarian function.MENSTRUATION – periodic vaginal discharge of bloody fluid from non – pregnant uterusthat occurs from the age of puberty to menopause.MENSTRUAL CYCLE – a complex interplay of events that occurs simultaneously in theuterus, hypothalamus and pituitary glands and the ovaries that results in ovarian anduterine preparation for pregnancy.
MENOPAUSE – cessation of menstrual cycle.OVULATION – periodic ripening the discharge of ovum from the ovary, usually 14 daysbefore the menstrual flow.MITTELSCHEMERZ – localized lower abdominal pain that coincides with ovulation.SPINNBARKEIT – property of the cervical mucous to stretch a distance before breaking.FERNING – a ferning pattern of cervical mucus occurs with high estrogen levels.C.Characteristics of a Normal Menstrual CycleMENARCHEOnset: 11 – 13 years oldRange: 9 – 17 years oldINTERVALAverage: 28 daysUnusual: 23 – 35 daysDURATIONAverage: 2 – 7 daysRange: 1 – 9 daysAMOUNT30 – 80 mL / menstrual periodSaturating pad / tampon in less than an hour is heavy bleeding.COLORDark red; blood mucus, endometrial cells.ODORSimilar to that of marigolds.D.Physiology of Menstrual Cycle1.Hypothalamusa.Factors affecting GnRH releasei.Estrogenii.Progesteroneiii.Prolactiniv.FSHv.LHb.Release GnRH (LNRH) which initiates menstrual cycle.c.Sensitive to estrogen produce by adrenal glands during childhood.d.Becomes less sensitive to estrogen feedback beginning puberty.2.Pituitary Glanda.Produces 2 hormones that influence the menstrual cycle.b.FSH, active early in the cycle and responsible for the maturation of the ovum.c.LH, most active hormone at the midpoint of the cycle, responsible for ovulationand growth of the uterine lining during the second half of the menstrual cycle.*Adenohypophysis – anterior pituitary gland3.Ovarya.FSH and LH cause growth in the gonads.b.Ovarian cycle occurs.i.Ovarian Cycle1.Follicular Phase
Period during which an ovum matures.
FSH and LH levels rise slightly.
Primordial follicle produces a clear fluid (follicular fluid), high inestrogen (estradiol) and some progesterone (Graafian follicle).2.Ovulatory Phase
Marks the beginning of the luteal phase and occurs about 14 daysbefore the next menstrual period.3.Luteal Phase
LH acts on the old follicle causing it to produce a bright yellow fluid(Lutein), high in progesterone and some estrogen (corpus luteum).
4.Uterusa.Menstrual cycle occurs.i.Menstrual Cycle1.Proliferative Phase
Estrogenic, Follicular, Post – menstrual Phase
Day 5 – 14
 The endometrium proliferates approximately eightfold2.Secretory Phase
Progestational, Luteal, Premenstrual Phase
Blood vessels and endometrium become corkscrew or twisted inappearance and dilated with quantities of glycogen, proteins, lipidsand minerals.3.Ischemic Phase
 The blood supply to the functional endometrium is blocked andnecrosis develops.
 The functional layer separates from the basal layer and menstrualbleeding begins making day 1 of next cycle.4.Menstrual Phase
Shedding of the functional 2/3 of the endometrium.
 The basal layer is always retained.
Regeneration begins near the end of the cycle from cells derivedfrom the remnants in the base.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGESA.Ante - partal-A term used to describe the period before labor or birth.1.FETAL DEVELOPMENTa.Fertilization (zygote)
Also referred to as conception, impregnation, fecundation.
 The union of an ovum and spermatozoa which usually occurs in theouter third layer of fallopian tube (ampulla).
“The Beginning of Pregnancy”
Ovum: Life – 24 – 48 hoursZona Pellucida – a ring of muco polysaccharide fluid.Corona Radiata – a circle of cells.
Spermatozoon: Life – 48 – 72 hoursCapacitation – final process that a sperm must undergo to beready for fertilization.Hyaluronidase – proteolytic enzyme produced by the spermto…Semen – 2.5 mL (50 – 200 million / mL)Average of 400 million/mL/ejaculationb.Implantation (embryo)
Contact between the growing structure and the uterineendometrium.
Occurs approximately 8 – 10 days after fertilization at the upper partof the uterus.
It takes 3 – 4 days for the zygote to journey to the uterus wheremitotic cell division happens.
Floats in the uterus for 3 – 4 days.
MORULA: because of the outward – bumpy appearance
“Morus” mulberry; 15 – 50 cells
BLASTOCYST: one which will attach to the uterine wall.

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