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Bio Medical Waste Management

Bio Medical Waste Management

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Published by anantarao

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Published by: anantarao on Dec 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Biomedical wastes are defined as waste that is generated during thediagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals, or in research activities pertaining thereto, or in the production of biological.
Major sources of biomedical waste:
Broadly, biomedical waste is generated in the hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, pathology/microbiology laboratories, blood banks, animal house and veterinary institutes.Such a waste can also be generated at home if the health care is being provided there to the patient (e.g. dialysis, insulin, injections, dressing materials etc)
Biomedical waste management:
Bio medical waste management refers to the classification, identification, segregation andscientific disposal of bio medical waste managementHospital wastes have always been considered as potentially hazardous in view of the inherent potential for dissemination of infection. In recent years, a wider variety of potentiallyhazardous ingredients including antibiotics, cytotoxic drugs, corrosive chemicals andradioactive substance have become a part of the hospital waste.Hospital waste management is an area, which has come to the limelight recently as a result of the notification of the bio medical waste (management in handling) rules 1998. This fulfills along felt need of hospital administrators, nursing administrators, hospital engineers, sanitationsupervisors, laboratory personnel and student of hospital and health administration.It is the waste generated by the health care establishments, research facilities and laboratories.Waste may be generated during:Diagnosis, treatment of disease and immunization of diseases associated bio medicalresearch, and production and testing of biological.
Biohazard means any of the following
Laboratories waste, including but not limited to, specimen cultures from medical and pathological laboratories, culture and stock of infectious agent from research and industriallaboratories, wastes from the production of biological agents, discarded live and attenuatedvaccines, and culture dishes and devices used to transfer, inoculate and mix cultures or materials which may contain infectious agents and may pose a substantial threat to health. Allnon-sterilized cultures shall be presumed to be bio hazardous.Any specimens sent to a laboratory for micro biological analysis shall be presumed to be biohazardous.Surgical specimens include human or animal parts or tissues removed surgically or byautopsy shall be presumed to bio hazardous.
Approximately 75-90% of biomedical waste is innocuous and a harmless as any other municipal wastes. The remaining 10-25% however differs from other waste in that it can beinjurious to human or animal health and deleterious to environment. It must be rememberedthat if both these types are mixed together then the whole lot becomes harmful.Categorization and classification of waste is very important. There are different types of classification depending upon how a particular kind of waste is to be handled, treated andfinally disposed.
Classification According to the Ministry of Environment and Forest Rules1998:
CATEGORIES OF BIO MEDICAL WASTE (as per rules)S.NoWaste categoryTreatment and disposalCategory No.1Human anatomicalwaste(Human body parts)Incineration and deep burialCategory No.2Animal wastes (Animaltissue organs , Body parts ,carcasses, bleeding parts, fluid, blood and experimentalanimal used inresearch, wastegenerate by vetenaryhospitals)Incineration and deep burialCategory No.3Microbiology andBiotechnologywastes(Wastes fromlaboratory cultures,stock or specimens of micro organism, live or attenuated vaccines ,human and animal cellculture used in researchand infectious agentfrom research andindustriallaboratories ,wastefrom production o biological toxins,dishes, and devicesused in transfer ocultures.)Local Autoclaving/ microwaving/IncinerationCategory No.4Waste sharps (Needles,Syringes. scalpels, blades, glass, etc.thatare capable of causing puncture and cuts. thisincludes both used andunused sharps.)Disinfection (chemical/ autoclaving/microwaving and mutilation/ shredding)
Category No.5Discarded medicinesand cytotoxic drugs(Waste comprising of outdated, contaminatedand discarded drugsand medicines.)Incineration/destruction and disposal inland fillsCategory No.6Solid Waste (Itemscontaminated with blood and body fluidsincluding cotton,dressing, soiled plaster casts, linens, beddings,other materialscontaminated with blood)Incineration/autoclaving/microwavingCategory No.7Solid waste (Wastegenerated fromdisposable items other than the waste sharpsuch as tubing,catheters, Iv sets, etc.)Disinfection by chemicaltreatment/autoclaving/microwaving andmultilation/shredingCategory No.8Liquid waste (Wastesgenerated fromlaboratories andwashing, cleaning,housekeeping anddisinfection activities.)Disinfection by chemical treatment anddischarge into drainsCategory No.9Incineration Ash (Ashfrom incineration of any Biomedical waste)Disposal into municipal land fillCategory No.10Chemical wastes(Chemicals used in production o biological, chemicalsused in disinfection, asinsecticides, etc.)Chemical treatment and discharge in drainfor liquids and or secured land fill fosolids.
General hospital hygiene is a pre-requisite for good medical waste management; it will beuseless in terms of prevention of nosocomial infection to start improving hospital wastemanagement if the hospital doesn’t have a reliable supply of safe water and basic sanitationfacilities accessible to hospital personnel, patients and visitors. Most hospitals in India lack these basic amenities. It is vital that the whole hospital be kept clean and in a satisfactorystate of hygiene to prevent spread of infection from patient to patient, patient to health care providers and vice-versa. In terms of prevention of spread of infections outside the hospitalcareful management of waste from the point of generation to safe disposal is of paramountimportance.Waste survey is an important component of the waste management scheme. A survey helps inevaluating both the type and quantity of waste generated in the hospital.A survey aims to:

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Simon Daniel added this note
the is a great work especially the categorization.
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