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dna fingerprinting

dna fingerprinting

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Published by kried
dna fingerprinting
dna fingerprinting

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: kried on Dec 07, 2009
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05/28/2013

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DNA fingerprinting
DNA Fingerprinting DNA Fingerprinting is also referred to as DNA profilingand DNA typing.
It was first developed as an identification technique in England in 1985. Theoriginal use was to expose the presence of any genetic diseases. Aboutthree years later it became used to identify criminals through the analysis of genetic material and to settle paternity disputes. It is still used for thosereasons today.
The DNA fingerprinting process is called gel electrophoresis. It is a processthat can sort pieces of DNA according to its size.
is a way of identifying a specific individual, rather than simply identifying aspecies or some particular trait.
DNA Fingerprinting Process
The
DNA Fingerprinting Process
began in
1985
. Genetic fingerprinting wasinvented by
Sir Alec Jeffreys
at the University of Leicester, and is used todistinguish individuals through DNA.The process begins by extracting DNA from the cells in a sample of 
blood,saliva, semen, or other appropriate fluid or tissue
.An analysis is performed by a cut into the DNA into fragments which areseparated into bands. The bands of DNA are transferred via a technique calledSouthern blotting. This is treated with a radioactively-labeled DNA probe whichbinds to certain and specific DNA sequences on the membrane. The excessDNA probe is washed off. An X-ray film placed next to the nylon membranedetects the radioactive pattern. This film is then developed to make a visiblepattern of bands called DNA fingerprinting.One of the most modern and widely accepted methods for producing DNAfingerprints in criminal cases, is that of 
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
. PCRinvolves the amplification of specific regions of DNA that are known to be. PCR is by far the most common method for presenting DNA evidence in aforensic context.
.
 Advantages of DNA Fingerprinting
:
 
 
The most important advantage of DNA fingerprinting is that there is strongsimilarities shown between genetic fingerprints of parents and children. This is abenefit because a child's genetic fingerprint is made up of half the father'sgenetic information and half of the mother's information. This means that thebands of a child's genetic fingerprint will match the bands on both of their parents, making it possible to establish paternity and maternity tests.
Disadvantages of DNA Fingerprinting:
 One of the main problems with the process of DNA fingerprinting is that thesample can be easily ruined. The tiniest pieces of genetic junk can contaminateDNA samples, causing them to be useless. Although DNA fingerprinting requiresa good sample to work with, this problem can be solved by using the newer technique called PCR. PCR can use extremely small samples of DNA andproduce a much faster result. But this also means the DNA samples that PCRuses are even more likely to be contaminated because of their size, as it isharder to find a small sample with hardly any contamination. Another limitation of fingerprinting is that the procedure is so complex and hard to read the DNApatterns, that sometimes the juror finds the evidence almost invisible.Although DNA Fingerprinting is a highly advanced process, there are still somethings that it is unable to do. In dogs for example, a fingerprint does not make itpossible to determine if the animal is a carrier of a disease causing allele. Also,a DNA fingerprint is unable to show a crossbreed in animals. This is becausesecond or third generation crosses cannot be seen by working backwards in apedigree. It may soon become possible to discover the crossbreed of dogs,although right now this is not possible.
Technique
. The AFLP technique is based on the selective PCR amplification of restrictionfragments from a total digest of genomic DNA. The technique involves three steps: (i)restriction of the DNA and ligation of oligonucleotide adapters, (ii) selective amplificationof sets of restriction fragments, and (iii) gel analysis of the amplified fragments. PCRamplification of restriction fragments is achieved by using the adapter and restriction sitesequence as target sites for primer annealing. The selective amplification is achieved bythe use of primers that extend into the restriction fragments, amplifying only thosefragments in which the primer extensions match the nucleotides flanking the restrictionsites. Using this method, sets of restriction fragments may be visualized by PCR withoutknowledge of nucleotide sequence. The method allows the specific co-amplification of high numbers of restriction fragments. The number of fragments that can be analyzedsimultaneously, however, is dependent on the resolution of the detection system.Typically 50-100 restriction fragments are amplified and detected on denaturingpolyacrylamide gels. The AFLP technique provides a novel and very powerful DNAfingerprinting technique for DNAs of any origin or complexity.

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