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Tragic Sense Of Life by Unamuno, Miguel de, 1864-1936

Tragic Sense Of Life by Unamuno, Miguel de, 1864-1936

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TRAGIC SENSE OF LIFE
MIGUEL DE UNAMUNO

translator, J.E. CRAWFORD FLITCH
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC
New York

This Dover edition, first published in 1954, is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the English translation originally published by Macmillan and Company, Ltd., in 1921. This edition is published by special arrangement with Macmillan and Company, Ltd.

The publisher is grateful to the Library of the University of Pennsylvania for supplying a
copy of this work for the purpose of reproduction.
Standard Book Number: 486-20257-7
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 54-4730

Manufactured in the United States of America
Dover Publications, Inc.
180 Varick Street
New York, N.Y. 10014

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTORY ESSAY
AUTHOR'S PREFACE
ITHE MAN OF FLESH AND BONE

Philosophy and the concrete man\u2014The man Kant, the man Butler, and the man
Spinoza\ue000Unity and continuity of the person\ue001Man an end not a means\ue002Intellectual
necessities and necessities of the heart and the will\ue003Tragic sense of life in men and in
peoples

II
THE STARTING-POINT
TRAGIC SENSE OF LIFE
1

Tragedy of Paradise\ue004Disease an element of progress\ue005Necessity of knowing in order to
live\ue006Instinct of preservation and instinct of perpetuation\ue007The sensible world and the ideal
world\ue008Practical starting-point of all philosophy\ue009Knowledge an end in itself?\ue00aThe man
Descartes\ue00bThe longing not to die

III
THE HUNGER OF IMMORTALITY

Thirst of being\ue00cCult of immortality\ue00dPlato's "glorious risk"\ue00e Materialism\ue00fPaul's
discourse to the Athenians\ue010Intolerance of the intellectuals\ue011Craving for fame\ue012Struggle for
survival

IV
THE ESSENCE OF CATHOLICISM

Immortality and resurrection\ue013Development of idea of immortality in Judaic and Hellenic
religions\ue014Paul and the dogma of the resurrection\ue015Athanasius\ue016Sacrament of the
Eucharist\ue017Lutheranism\ue018Modernism\ue019The Catholic ethic\ue01aScholasticism\ue01bThe Catholic
solution

VTHE RATIONALIST DISSOLUTION

Materialism\ue01cConcept of substance\ue01dSubstantiality of the
soul\ue01eBerkeley—Myers—Spencer—Combat of life with
reason—Theological advocacy—Odium anti-theologicum—The
rationalist attitude—Spinoza—Nietzsche—Truth and consolation

VI
IN THE DEPTHS OF THE ABYSS

Passionate doubt and Cartesian doubt—Irrationality of the problem of
immortality—Will and intelligence—Vitalism and
rationalism—Uncertainty as basis of faith—The ethic of
despair—Pragmatical justification of despair—Summary of preceding criticism

VII
LOVE, SUFFERING, PITY, AND PERSONALITY

Sexual love—Spiritual love—Tragic love—Love and
pity—Personalizing faculty of love—God the Personalization of the
All—Anthropomorphic tendency—Consciousness of the
Universe—What is Truth?—Finality of the Universe

The Project Gutenberg eBook of TRAGIC SENSE OF LIFE, by MIGUEL DE UNAMUNO.
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VIII
FROM GOD TO GOD

Concept and feeling of Divinity—Pantheism—Monotheism—The
rational God—Proofs of God's existence—Law of necessity—Argument
from Consensus gentium—The living God—Individuality and
personality—God a multiplicity—The God of Reason—The God of
Love—Existence of God

IX
FAITH, HOPE, AND CHARITY

Personal element in faith—Creative power of faith—Wishing that God may
exist—Hope the form of faith—Love and suffering—The suffering
God—Consciousness revealed through suffering—Spiritualization of matter

XRELIGION, THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE BEYOND, AND THE APOCATASTASIS

What is religion?—The longing for immortality—Concrete representation of a
future life—Beatific vision—St. Teresa—Delight requisite for
happiness—Degradation of energy—Apocatastasis—Climax of the
tragedy—Mystery of the Beyond

XI
THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM

Conflict as basis of conduct—Injustice of annihilation—Making ourselves
irreplaceable—Religious value of the civil occupation—Business of religion and
religion of business—Ethic of domination—Ethic of the
cloister—Passion and culture—The Spanish soul

CONCLUSION
DON QUIXOTE IN THE CONTEMPORARY EUROPEAN TRAGI-COMEDY

Culture—Faust—The modern Inquisition—Spain and the scientific
spirit—Cultural achievement of Spain—Thought and language—Don
Quixote the hero of Spanish thought—Religion a transcendental
economy—Tragic ridicule—Quixotesque philosophy—Mission of Don
Quixote to-day

The Project Gutenberg eBook of TRAGIC SENSE OF LIFE, by MIGUEL DE UNAMUNO.
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