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This Case Presentation Aims to Identify and Determine the General

This Case Presentation Aims to Identify and Determine the General

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Published by jhenvito

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Published by: jhenvito on Dec 07, 2009
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OBJECTIVESGeneralThis case presentation aims to identify and determine the general heath problems and needs of the patient withan admitting diagnosis of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. This presentation also intends to help patient promotehealth and medical understanding of such condition through the application of the nursing skills.Specific
To raise the level of awareness of patient on health problems that she may encounter.
To facilitate patient in taking necessary actions to solve and prevent the identified problems on her own.
To help patient in motivating her to continue the health care provided by the health workers.
To render nursing care and information to patient through the application of the nursing skills.OVERVIEW OF THE DISEASEINTRODUCTIONDengue fever is found mostly during and shortly after the rainy season in tropical and subtropical areas of 
Southeast Asia and China
Middle East
Caribbean and Central and South America
Australia and the South and Central PacificDengue fever can be caused by any one of four types of dengue virus: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. Youcan be infected by at least two, if not all four types at different times during your lifetime, but only once by thesame type. You can get dengue virus infections from the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Mosquitoes become infectedwhen they bite infected humans, and later transmit infection to other people they bite. Two main species of mosquito, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, have been responsible for all cases of dengue transmitted inthis country. Dengue is not contagious from person to person.DEFINITION
Dengue hemorrhagic Fever
Dengue fever also known as break-bone fever is a severe infectious disease characterizedby pain in eyes, head and extremities. The disease is transmitted by the infective bite of Aedes Aegypti mosquito. Once bitten by the mosquito, it takes 3-14 days to develop thedisease. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) are themost serious forms of Dengue that may cause death. Person with dengue hemorrhagicfever lacks blood clotting process. About 20-30% of people with DHF develop shock whichis known as dengue shock syndrome. Dengue commonly prevails in warm and wet areas of the world.The disease is commonly spread during the rainy season. It is highly recommended to see a doctor,once the symptoms of dengue fever are observed.
SIGN AND SYMPTOMSSymptoms of typical uncomplicated (classic) dengue usually start with fever within 5 to 6 days after you havebeen bitten by an infected mosquito and include
High fever, up to 105 degrees Fahrenheit
Severe headache
Retro-orbital (behind the eye) pain
Severe joint and muscle pain
Nausea and vomiting
RashThe rash may appear over most of your body 3 to 4 days after the fever begins. You may get a second rash later in the disease. Symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever include all of the symptoms of classic dengue plus
Marked damage to blood and lymph vessels
Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin, causing purplish bruisesThis form of dengue disease can cause death.Symptoms of dengue shock syndrome-the most severe form of dengue disease-include all of the symptoms of classic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, plus
Fluids leaking outside of blood vessels
Massive bleeding
Shock (very low blood pressure)This form of the disease usually occurs in children (sometimes adults) experiencing their second dengueinfection. It is sometimes fatal, especially in children and young adults.
Dengue fever can be diagnosed by doing two blood tests, 2 to 3 weeks apart. The testscan show whether a sample of your blood contains antibodies to the virus. In epidemics, ahealth care provider often can diagnose dengue by typical signs and symptoms.There is no specific treatment for classic dengue fever, and like most people you willrecover completely within 2 weeks. To help with recovery, health care experts recommend
Getting plenty of bed rest
Drinking lots of fluids
Taking medicine to reduce fever Often health care provider advises people with dengue fever not to take aspirin.Acetaminophen or other over-the-counter pain-reducing medicines are safe for mostpeople. For severe dengue symptoms, including shock and coma, early and aggressiveemergency treatment with fluid and electrolyte replacement can be lifesaving.The best way to prevent dengue fever is to take special precautions to avoid contact withmosquitoes. Several dengue vaccines are being developed, but none is likely to belicensed by the Food and Drug Administration in the next few years.When outdoors in an area where dengue fever has been found
Use a mosquito repellant containing DEET, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus
Dress in protective clothing-long-sleeved shirts, long pants, socks, and shoesBecause Aedes mosquitoes usually bite during the day, be sure to use precautionsespecially during early morning hours before daybreak and in the late afternoon beforedark.Other precautions include
Keeping unscreened windows and doors closed
Keeping window and door screens repaired
Getting rid of areas where mosquitoes breed, such as standing water in flower pots, containers, birdbaths, discarded tires, etc.Most people who develop dengue fever recover completely within 2 weeks. Some,however, may go through several weeks to months of feeling tired and/or depressed.

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