For the purposes of this Little Book of Concrete, precastincludes all factory-made concrete products from smallermodular items such as concrete bricks, paving and roof tiles, through larger standard products such as pipelinesystems, piles and precast ﬂoor beams, to bespoke unitssuch as cladding panels and structural units designed andmanufactured to speciﬁc architectural and engineeringrequirements.This amazing portfolio of products serves the needs of societyevery day, and supports economic growth. Together they provide: Shelter and protection against the forces of nature
Drinking water, drainage and sanitation systems
Communication and transport infrastructures
Energy supply systems
Commercial, educational and healthcare facilities
As well as these functions, precast concrete products also havevery positive inbuilt sustainability advantages with environmentalproﬁles that are improving month by month. In use they help tocombat some of the direct eﬀects of climate change such as hottersummers, high winds, ﬂash ﬂooding and urban heat islands.