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Advanced Structural Behavior

Advanced Structural Behavior

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Published by nedumaran.s
structural behaviou
structural behaviou

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Published by: nedumaran.s on Aug 29, 2014
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 Advanced Structural Behavior
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Prestress
Parts of elastic systems are sometimes under stress before the addition of external loads. Examples are temperature stresses in welded members, bolted connections, prestressed concrete, etc. The eects of such stresses can be mathematically quantied with elastic theory, if it can be assumed that the prestress is not severe enough to aect the material properties.  good example of this is a thic! cylinder sub"ected to an internal pressure load. #f the cylinder is not prestressed, the inner surface of the vessel reaches the elastic limit rst and determines the maximum load that may be applied. #f the cylinder is prestressed, however, by shrin!ing on a "ac!et or wrapping in wire under tension, then initially it is under compressive stress.  The internal pressure required to reverse this stress and produce a tensile stress equal to the rst case is much greater than before. The result is a much stronger vessel. nother example is prestressed concrete. $oncrete %as do all brittle materials& has a higher strength in compression than in tension. To allow the material to handle tension loads %such as created by the bending of a road orbridge component&, members are compressed using tension rods. The tension loads seen are then at least partially carried by the reversal of stress,rather than in tension of the material. Prestress can also aect the vibration characteristics of a structure. Tension tends to increase natural frequency, while compression tends to lower it. Thetension present in the strings of musical instruments is a good example of this.
Buckling
 
 
'nder certain circumstances structures will fail by elastic instability. This occurs when the load produces a ending or twisting moment that is proportional to the deformation. The most common example is the Euler column. #n this case, a slender column is loaded axially. The load results in small de(ections, up to a critical load value. t this magnitude of load, the member collapses. )ailure occurs even though the stress in the member remained below the yield values. The mathematical equation for elastic buc!ling of a long column is* +here P  total load,   area of section, -r  slenderness ratio, and $ is the coe/cient of constraint %depends on end constraints 00 usually 1 or 2 is used for end conditions that occur in practice. 3eference boo!s have tabulated equations that cover a wide variety of geometric cases %non0uniform cross0sections, tapered bars, etc.&, loadings, and end constraints. 4ther examples of this phenomenon are thin plates in compression, thin cylinders under compression, etc. Elastic buc!ling behavior is only seen in structures that are much longer in one or two directions than the other one or two directions. +hen columns %and thin plates, etc.& are short %or thic!& enough, these structures can exhibit behavior that re(ects a combination of eects. The slenderness ratio where this occurs starts roughly between 125 and 165. Theequation given no longer holds for these cases. )ormulas exist for nding thecritical loading for these structures as well, but these equations are more complicated, and contain terms that have been empirically ad"usted to agreewith testing.
Dynamic effects
+hen a loads on a system result in the lac! of static equilibrium %where the sum of all forces are 7ero&, we can say that dynamic eects are important. 4ften the inertial eects of the structure itself are important, when it moves with appreciable velocity. ll structures tend to vibrate with specic mode shapes, at specic frequencies of vibration. These tendencies are termed the natural frequencies of the structure, and are dependent on stiness and mass distribution. +hen a structural member is excited with a dynamic load that acts with a frequency near one of its8 natural frequencies, the resultant de(ections %and stresses& can be very large. The inertia forces in the structure may become important, as the spring0bac! forces of the structure tend to add to the eectof the dynamic loads 4ften, the rst step in attac!ing a dynamic structural problem is to determine the natural frequencies of the structure involved. This can be doneby hand calculations, or more li!ely, through nite element analysis. The natural frequencies are dependent on geometry, material, and constraints only. They are independent of loading. fter nding the natural frequencies, it then must be determined whether or not the dynamic loads will tend to excite these frequencies within the structure. #t is often valuable simply to compare the frequencies of the loads to the natural modes directly.
 
 The equilibrium equation for forces in an undamped simple harmonic oscillator system is shown below* m x88%t& 9 ! x%t&  5  The solution to this problem is given by x%t&   cos %
ω
 t& where  is a constant that can be determined from the initial conditions. #t can be written that* % 0m
ω
2
 9 ! &  cos %
ω
 t&  5  This equation is good for any time t, only if the term in parenthesis is equal to 7ero. )or this to be true, it means that the value of
ω
 is given by
ω
  %!m&
12
 where
ω
 is !nown as the natural frequency, or fundamental frequency of the system. :ote the dependence of the natural frequency on mass and stiness.
Temperature effects
$hanges in temperature create strain, as given by the equation
ε
 
α
 
 T where
α
 is the thermal expansion coe/cient of the material, and
 T is the change in temperature seen. #f the member in question is restrained against expansion %or contraction& due the temperature change, stress is created. This stress is equal to the stress that would be created if an external force were to create the deformation from the stress0free state to the constrained state. ;aterial properties often behave as functions of temperature. <enerally, the modulus of elasticity will lessen in value with increasing temperature. This eect can be important. ;ost )E programs provide for this type of input.  The input format is usually piece0wise linear %a table of values&, in which linear interpolation is used between values, or a polynomial function. 4ften )E programs provide for using the results of thermal analysis as temperature input to structrual problems.  thermal simulation is performed rst, to determine the temperature distribution in the structure. Then, the output temperatures are applied to the structural model as input. The resulting thermal load is equal to the dierence %at every point in the

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