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An Elementary Study of Chemistry by Henderson, William Edwards

An Elementary Study of Chemistry by Henderson, William Edwards

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STUDY OF CHEMISTRY
BY
WILLIAM McPHERSON, PH.D.
PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY, OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
AND
WILLIAM EDWARDS HENDERSON, PH.D.
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY, OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
REVISED EDITION
GINN & COMPANY
BOSTON * NEW YORK * CHICAGO * LONDON
COPYRIGHT, 1905, 1906, BY
WILLIAM MCPHERSON AND WILLIAM E. HENDERSON
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
The Athen\u00e6um Press

GINN & COMPANY * PROPRIETORS * BOSTON * U.S.A.
Transcriber's note: Minor typos have been corrected.
[Pg iii]

PREFACE

In offering this book to teachers of elementary chemistry the authors lay no claim to any great originality. It
has been their aim to prepare a text-book constructed along lines which have become recognized as best suited
to an elementary treatment of the subject. At the same time they have made a consistent effort to make the text
clear in outline, simple in style and language, conservatively modern in point of view, and thoroughly
teachable.

The question as to what shall be included in an elementary text on chemistry is perhaps the most perplexing one which an author must answer. While an enthusiastic chemist with a broad understanding of the science is very apt to go beyond the capacity of the elementary student, the authors of this text, after an experience of many years, cannot help believing that the tendency has been rather in the other direction. In many texts no mention at all is made of fundamental laws of chemical action because their complete presentation is quite

STUDY OF CHEMISTRY
1

beyond the comprehension of the student, whereas in many cases it is possible to present the essential features
of these laws in a way that will be of real assistance in the understanding of the science. For example, it is a
difficult matter to deduce the law of mass action in any very simple way; yet the elementary student can
readily comprehend that reactions are reversible, and that the point of equilibrium depends upon, rather simple
conditions. The authors believe that it is worth while to[Pg iv] present such principles in even an elementary
and partial manner because they are of great assistance to the general student, and because they make a
foundation upon which the student who continues his studies to more advanced courses can securely build.

The authors have no apologies to make for the extent to which they have made use of the theory of electrolytic
dissociation. It is inevitable that in any rapidly developing science there will be differences of opinion in
regard to the value of certain theories. There can be no question, however, that the outline of the theory of
dissociation here presented is in accord with the views of the very great majority of the chemists of the present
time. Moreover, its introduction to the extent to which the authors have presented it simplifies rather than
increases the difficulties with which the development of the principles of the science is attended.

The oxygen standard for atomic weights has been adopted throughout the text. The International Committee,
to which is assigned the duty of yearly reporting a revised list of the atomic weights of the elements, has
adopted this standard for their report, and there is no longer any authority for the older hydrogen standard. The
authors do not believe that the adoption of the oxygen standard introduces any real difficulties in making
perfectly clear the methods by which atomic weights are calculated.

The problems appended to the various chapters have been chosen with a view not only of fixing the principles
developed in the text in the mind of the student, but also of enabling him to answer such questions as arise in
his laboratory work. They are, therefore, more or less practical in character. It is not necessary that all of them
should[Pg v] be solved, though with few exceptions the lists are not long. The answers to the questions are not
directly given in the text as a rule, but can be inferred from the statements made. They therefore require
independent thought on the part of the student.

With very few exceptions only such experiments are included in the text as cannot be easily carried out by the student. It is expected that these will be performed by the teacher at the lecture table. Directions for laboratory work by the student are published in a separate volume.

While the authors believe that the most important function of the elementary text is to develop the principles
of the science, they recognize the importance of some discussion of the practical application of these
principles to our everyday life. Considerable space is therefore devoted to this phase of chemistry. The teacher
should supplement this discussion whenever possible by having the class visit different factories where
chemical processes are employed.

Although this text is now for the first time offered to teachers of elementary chemistry, it has nevertheless
been used by a number of teachers during the past three years. The present edition has been largely rewritten
in the light of the criticisms offered, and we desire to express our thanks to the many teachers who have
helped us in this respect, especially to Dr. William Lloyd Evans of this laboratory, a teacher of wide
experience, for his continued interest and helpfulness. We also very cordially solicit correspondence with
teachers who may find difficulties or inaccuracies in the text.

The authors wish to make acknowledgments for the photographs and engravings of eminent chemists from
which[Pg vi] the cuts included in the text were taken; to Messrs. Elliott and Fry, London, England, for that of
Ramsay; to The Macmillan Company for those of Davy and Dalton, taken from the Century Science Series; to
the L. E. Knott Apparatus Company, Boston, for that of Bunsen.

THE AUTHORS
The Project Gutenberg eBook of An Elementary Study Of Chemistry, by William Mcpherson, Ph.D..
PREFACE
2
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
COLUMBUS, OHIO
[Pg vii]
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PAGE
I. INTRODUCTION
1
II. OXYGEN
13
III. HYDROGEN
28
IV. WATER AND HYDROGEN DIOXIDE
40
V. THE ATOMIC THEORY
59
VI. CHEMICAL EQUATIONS AND CALCULATIONS
68
VII. NITROGEN AND THE RARE ELEMENTS IN THE ATMOSPHERE
78
VIII. THE ATMOSPHERE
83
IX. SOLUTIONS
94
X. ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS; NEUTRALIZATION
106
XI. VALENCE
116
XII. COMPOUNDS OF NITROGEN
122
XIII. REVERSIBLE REACTIONS AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
137
XIV. SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUNDS
143
XV. PERIODIC LAW
165
XVI. THE CHLORINE FAMILY
174
XVII. CARBON AND SOME OF ITS SIMPLER COMPOUNDS
196
XVIII. FLAMES,\u2014ILLUMINANTS
213
XIX. MOLECULAR WEIGHTS, ATOMIC WEIGHTS, FORMULAS
223
XX. THE PHOSPHORUS FAMILY
238
XXI. SILICON, TITANIUM, BORON
257
XXII. THE METALS
267
XXIII. THE ALKALI METALS
274
XXIV. THE ALKALINE-EARTH FAMILY
300
XXV. THE MAGNESIUM FAMILY
316
XXVI. THE ALUMINIUM FAMILY
327
The Project Gutenberg eBook of An Elementary Study Of Chemistry, by William Mcpherson, Ph.D..
CONTENTS
3

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