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Letters to "The Times" upon War and Neutrality (1881-1920) by Holland, Thomas Erskine, 1835-1926

Letters to "The Times" upon War and Neutrality (1881-1920) by Holland, Thomas Erskine, 1835-1926

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LETTERS UPON WAR AND NEUTRALITY
(1881-1920)
LETTERS TO "THE TIMES"

UPON
WAR AND NEUTRALITY
(1881-1920)
WITH SOME COMMENTARY

BY
SIR THOMAS ERSKINE HOLLAND
K.C., D.C.L., F.B.A.
FELLOW OF ALL SOULS COLLEGE

SOMETIME CHICHELE PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
MEMBRE (PR\u00c9SIDENT 1913) DE L'INSTITUT DE DROIT INTERNATIONAL
ETC., ETC.

THIRD EDITION
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
FOURTH AVENUE & 30TH STREET, NEW YORK
LETTERS UPON WAR AND NEUTRALITY
1
BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, AND MADRAS
1921
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

For a good many years past I have been allowed to comment, in letters to The Times, upon points of
International Law, as they have been raised by the events of the day. These letters have been fortunate enough
to attract some attention, both at home and abroad, and requests have frequently reached me that they should
be rendered more easily accessible than they can be in the files of the newspaper in which they originally
appeared.

I have, accordingly, thought that it might be worth while to select, from a greater number, such of my letters
as bear upon those questions of War and Neutrality of which so much has been heard in recent years, and to
group them for republication, with some elucidatory matter (more especially with reference to changes
introduced by the Geneva Convention of 1906, The Hague Conventions of 1907, and the Declaration of
London of the present year) under the topics to which they respectively relate.

The present volume has been put together in accordance with this plan; and my best thanks are due to the
proprietors of The Times for permitting the reissue of the letters in a collected form. Cross-references and a
full Index will, I hope, to some extent remove the difficulties which might otherwise be caused by the
fragmentary character, and the chances of repetition, inseparable from such a work.

T. E. H.
EGGISHORN, SWITZERLAND,
September 14, 1909.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

I have again to thank The Times for permission to print in this new edition letters which have appeared in its
columns during the past four years. They will be found to deal largely with still unsettled questions suggested
by the work of the Second Peace Conference, by the Declaration of London, and by the, unfortunately
conceived, Naval Prize Bill of 1911.

I have no reason to complain of the reception which has so far been accorded to the views which I have
thought it my duty to put forward.
T. E. H.
OXFORD,
January 10, 1914.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION
This, doubtless final, edition of my letters upon War and Neutrality contains, by renewed kind permission of
The Times, the whole series of such letters, covering a period of no less than forty years. To the letters which
have already appeared in former editions, I have now added those contained in the "Supplement" of 1916 (for
Letters To The Times Upon War And Neutrality, by Sir Thomas Erskine Holland.
LETTERS TO "THE TIMES"
2

some time out of print) to my second edition; as also others of still more recent date. All these have been
grouped, as were their predecessors, under the various topics which they were intended to illustrate. The
explanatory commentaries have been carefully brought up to date, and a perhaps superfluously full Index
should facilitate reference for those interested in matters of the kind. Such persons may not be sorry to have
their attention recalled to many questions which have demanded practical treatment of late years, more
especially during the years of the great war.

Not a few of these questions are sure again to come to the front, so soon as the rehabilitation of International
Law, rendered necessary by the conduct of that War, shall be seriously taken in hand.
T. E. H.
OXFORD,
April 25, 1921.
CONTENTS

CHAPTER I
MEASURES SHORT OF WAR FOR THE SETTLEMENT
OF INTERNATIONAL CONTROVERSIES
1SECTION 1

Friendly Measures
1 The Petition to the President of the United States (1899) 2
Commissions of Enquiry and The Hague Convention (1904) 3
The League of Nations (1919) 7
The League of Nations (1919) 8
The League of Nations (1920) 9
SECTION 2

Pacific Reprisals
9 The Blockade of the Menam (1893) 10
Pacific Blockade (1897) 11
The Venezuelan Controversy (1902) 13
The Venezuela Protocol (1903) 18
War and Reprisals (1908) 18
CHAPTER II
STEPS TOWARDS A WRITTEN LAW OF WAR
22 Count von Moltke on the Laws of Warfare (1881) 23
Professor Bluntschli's Reply to Count von Moltke (1881) 26
The United States Naval War Code (1901) 29
A Naval War Code (1902) 31
CHAPTER III
TERMINOLOGY
33 International Terminology (1918) 33
CHAPTER IV
CONVENTIONS AND LEGISLATION
36 Government Bills and International Conventions (1911) 36
The present Bill in Parliament (1914) 38
The Foreign Enlistment Bill (1912) 39

Letters To The Times Upon War And Neutrality, by Sir Thomas Erskine Holland.
CONTENTS
3

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