Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
0 of .
Results for:
P. 1
Calculus

# Calculus

Ratings: (0)|Views: 0 |Likes:
integral calculus
integral calculus

Categories:Types, School Work

### Availability:

See more
See less

08/29/2014

pdf

text

original

A
function
is a special relationship between values: Each of its input values gives back exactly one output value. it has an input and an output. And the output is related somehow to the input.
Types of functions Composite functions
are what you get when you take the output of one function and use it for the input of the next one. In this discussion, we will discuss the composition of functions which are R
1
R
1
, i.e. a real number as an input and a real number as an output. The notation for this is (f g)(x)=f(g(x)), where the output of g(x) becomes the input of f(x) and is described as (fg)(x). As a real example, let's use f(x)=x
2
+2*x-2, and g(x)=3*x+2. By replacing all of the occurrances of x in f(x) by the formula for g(x) we can find the formula in x for the composite function. So: (fg)(x) = f(g(x)) = f(3*x+2) (fg)(x) = (3*x+2)
2
+2*(3*x+2)-2 (fg)(x) = (9*x
2
+12*x+4)+(6*x+4)-2 (fg)(x) = 9*x
2
+18*x+6
Even and Odd Functions
Even functions are functions for which the left half of the plane looks like the mirror image of the right half of the plane. Odd functions are functions where the left half of the plane looks like the mirror image of the right half of the plane, only upside-down.Mathematically, we say that a function f(x) is even if f(x)=f(-x) and is odd if f(-x)=-f(x).
Inverse Functions
An invertible function is a function that can be inverted. An invertible function must satisfy the condition that each element in the domain corresponds to one distinct element that no other element in the domain corresponds to. That is, all of the elements in the domain and range are paired-up in monogomous relationships - each element in the domain pairs to only one element in the range and each element in the range pairs to only one element in the domain. Thus, the inverse of a function is a function that looks at this relationship from the other viewpoint. So, for all elements a in the domain of f(x), the inverse of f(x) (notation: f
-1
(x)) satisfies: f(a)=b implies f
-1
(b)=a And, if you do the slightest bit of manipulation, you find that:
-1
(f(a))=a Yielding the identity function for all inputs in the domain.

The generalized form for a linear function (1 is highest power): f(x) = ax+b, where a and b are constants, and a is not equal to 0 The generalized form for a quadratic function (2 is highest power): f(x) = ax
2
+bx+c, where a, b and c are constants, and a is not equal to 0 The generalized form for a cubic function (3 is highest power): f(x) = ax
3
+bx
2
+cx+d, where a, b, c and d are constants, and a is not equal to 0
Monotonic functions
are functions that tend to move in only one direction as x increases. A
monotonic increasing
function always increases as x increases, i.e. f(a)>f(b) for all a>b. A
monotonic decreasing
function always decreases as x increases, i.e. f(a)<f(b) for all a>b. In calculus speak, a monotonic decreasing function's derivative is always negative. A monotonic increasing function's derivative is always positive. The same sort of restrictions are also made for the
monotonic non-decreasing
and
monotonic non-increasing
functions, only the rules governing the derivative's domain are not strict inequalities. Besides lines, some monotonic functions are the exponential e
x
, and some polynomials where one monotonic factor outwieghs the others, like f(x) = sin(x)+4x. Because it is uncommon to find functions which strictly increase or strictly decrease, we sometimes call a function monotonic on a restricted domain. For instance, cos(x) is monotonic decreasing within 0<x<
Periodic functions
are functions that repeat over and over, or cycle on a specific period. This is expressed mathematically thatA function is periodic if "there exists some number p>0 such that f(x)=f(x+p) for all possible values of x".
Graphs Of Function

Linear Function Quadratic Function Cubic Function