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Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury

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Published by Penvampyre
Paper on Traumatic Brain Injury(TBI).
Paper on Traumatic Brain Injury(TBI).

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Published by: Penvampyre on Dec 08, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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McPhail 1Julie McPhailJill BoeckNature and Needs of the Exceptional Learner (EDU 211)23 April, 2009Traumatic Brain InjuryThe accepted official definition for traumatic brain injury as used by thefederal government is as follows:IDEA [Individuals with Disabilities Education Act] defines traumaticbrain injury (TBI) as an acquired injury to the brain caused by anexternal physical force, resulting in total or partial functionaldisability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects[an individual’s] educational performance (Turnbull, Turnbull, andWehmeyer 314).Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) occurswhen an outside forcetraumatically injuresthe brain. TBI can beclassified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetratinghead injury) or other features (e.g. occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). “Head injury” usually refers to TBI, but isa broader category because it can involve damage to structuresother than the brain, such as the scalp and skull (WikipediaTraumatic Brain 1).
McPhail 2However, the terms traumatic brain injury and head injury are oftenused interchangeably in the medical literature (Wikipedia HeadInjury 1).In addition to the classically accepted definition of the causes of traumatic braininjury, there may be some confusion because there is a condition that is not oftenthought of as being a part of the universally accepted standards. This is because incertain circumstances where traumatic brain injury is acquired, the condition is causedby a vector infecting humans. There is a patient who will be known as “Jane” for thepurposes of this paper. Jane’s traumatic brain injury was caused by an insect bitewhich resulted in a systemic infection that damaged several key areas in her brain.According to the criteria of the agencies that now provide services to her, she has beenclassified as having a traumatic brain injury due to the areas of damage to her brain,although it was not acquired in the ways which will be examined in this work. She isunable to speak and must use a talking board or computer to communicate, cannotwalk, and has had major mood swings which are characteristics of a depressive state.Jane has exhibited episodes where she is devious, ill tempered and combative. Shewill be pleasant to people if she deems it is in her best self interest. For example, her caregivers frequently find going to the grocery store shopping with her to be a long andtedious ordeal. While she is sitting in a wheelchair endlessly reading the labels line byline, it is not unusual for her aides to have to remain standing on their feet for hours at atime nearby her. If, however, Jane and the workers go to eat afterwards, and shediscovers that she is out of money, Jane is now suddenly concerned about the aide’scomfort and physical wellbeing and suggests they sit while eating. It is then, after her 
McPhail 3seeming sudden concern for the welfare of those accompanying her, that Jane asks if the aide could please buy her lunch. This request is rarely refused her because theaides often can't help but feel that they need to accommodate her to continue her goodbehavior while out in public.Jane is well-educated. She graduated from high school with honors prior to her accident, and afterwards went on to attend college at the University of Buffalo whereshe struggled to receive a four year degree in chemistry.The term [traumatic brain injury] applies to open or closed headinjuries resulting in impairment in one or more areas, such ascognition; language; memory; [ability to pay] attention; reasoning;abstract thinking; judgment; problem solving; psychosocialbehavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech(Turnbull, Turnbull, and Wehmeyer 314).It is essential to keep in mind that traumatic brain injuries as defined do not apply toinjuries that are congenital or degenerative in origin. Traumatic brain injuries arecertainly not due to birth traumas as some used to believe. Traumatic brain injury mustbe an acquired injury, which means acquisition after an individual is born, but not as aresult of birth delivery....the term TBI applies to both open and closed head injuries:An open head injury penetrates the bones of the skull, allowingbacteria to have direct contact with the brain and potentiallyimpairing specific functions, usually only those controlled by theinjured part of the brain (Turnbull, Turnbull and Wehmeyer 314).

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