society, as it was "negative" and "metaphysical" in its demands. Hence a need tocreate a new (positive) religion and new clergy which, like the Catholic Church inthe Middle Ages, will unite society.
A positive one-mindedness, which iscontrary to political pluralism, is the basis of Comte's political conception.Starting from the changes introduced by the French Revolution, Comtetries to deal with its radicalism by curbing its original power and to use it toconsolidate and develop a new order. He wants to "reconcile" the revolutionaryspirit, which eliminated from the historical scene the obsolete "metaphysical"stage in the development of history, to the new "progressive" spirit of the"victorious bourgeoisie" (Enthoven) and thus ensure a stable development of capitalism and the establishment of the positive as the final stage in thedevelopment of civilization. Although Coubertin claims that the rapid industrialdevelopment, which deprived life of purpose, is the starting point for hisendeavour to offer an Olympic philosophy as a new integrative spiritual force of society, the real reason is his endeavour to militarize the French bourgeoisie andurge it to embark on new colonial exploits, as well as a fear of the ever stronger working movement and the new revolutionary (communist) thought. Frightened by the Parisian Commune and the ever louder slogans of the French (andEuropean) proletariat, Coubertin does not even think of a "reconciliation" to therevolutionary spirit that opens the possibility of overcoming the class society, but, by his reforms, seeks to destroy the germ of a
created in modern society. Inthat context, his Olympic idea is at odds with the emancipatory impulses of Comte's positivism. For Coubertin, the bourgeois is not only the advocate of capitalism, but also a privilege of the rich "elite" acquired in the periods of slaveryand feudalism. Hence his political allies are the aristocracy and the CatholicChurch - the sworn enemies of the French Revolution and the emancipatoryheritage of the 19
century; that is why the ancient world, in which
did notyet appear on the political scene, is the ideal world that should be sought for; thatis why Coubertin sought to reduce the relations between workers and capitalists tothe relation between feudal lords and serfs; that is why he concluded that with theFrench Revolution "only the form changed, while the essence remained the same",and claimed that the feudal order was "more democratic".The fight between contradictions is excluded from both Comte's andCoubertin's social order. They are dominated by a "spontaneous harmony"(Gurvich) and not by the "integration of parts together with the existence of socialcontradictions".
As a consistent social prophylactic, Coubertin has a holisticattitude to society: society becomes an organic whole that functions in harmony.Unlike Saint-Simon, Fourier and Marx, who in the conflict between social groups(classes) see the moving force of social progress, Coubertin, like Comte andSpencer, holds that political conflicts threaten the health of the social organismand slow down its (inevitable) advance, and therefore seeks to bring all (positive)social phenomena into an organic unity and remove those (negative) that threatenit. Coubertin rejected the struggle of the oppressed for freedom, equality and