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Final Report-Senior Capstone

Final Report-Senior Capstone

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Published by Grant

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Published by: Grant on Dec 08, 2009
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06/16/2010

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 6 December 2009
 
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Introduction
The purpose of this report is to serve a founding document for the creation of, or the eventualworking in the Middle East with a non-profit organization focused on water conservation.Though several other organizations already exist with similar mission statements this report wasinitially created as a pilot action plan limited to the countries of Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Iraq,Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen. The reporthas since become more generalized in nature with an overall focus on the applicability andfeasibility of three main water conservation strategies that include: 1) Public awareness, 2) Greywater and irrigation, and 3) Rain catching. To supplement country specific information and to better prioritize the area of focus for the non-profit organization an appendix has been addedwith country specific information and short assessments prioritizing conservation strategies. Theobjective of the report is to determine a non-profit organization’s ability to implement thoseconservation strategies while taking into account financing, climate, and, to some extent, local politics.The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is the most water deprived region in the world,experiencing the highest variation of annual precipitation and a forecasted 60% percent increasein population over the next sixteen years, reaching 500 million,
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the dynamic of the region makeits future unstable at best. Currently in the MENA the average person has access to 1,200m³ of water annually, compared to 7,000m³ annually available to people worldwide.
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Furthermore, in amodel setting each person annually needs one cubic meter of water for personal use (drinking), ahundred cubic meters for other uses, and an additional thousand cubic meters for agricultural
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(Water Resouce Management in MENA 2008)
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(Water Resouce Management in MENA 2008)
 
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 production.
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With exponential population growth the demand for water, especially in agriculture,has exceeded the discharge rate of renewable water sources. Due to the scarcity of water andlimited access to fresh water the average annual withdrawal in the Middle East is 686m³compared to 972m³ in the United States. It’s important to note that several factors in the MENAskew the interpretation of data to include faulty data collection, regional disputes over water rights, municipal regulations, and wasteful use of water.Limited water supply throughout the region can mostly be attributed to the overwhelmingdemand from agricultural irrigation, but can also be a result of local politics that affect the useand distribution of fresh water. For example, in most countries farmers are required to pay a flatrate on water rights to irrigate their fields, but the rights do not place restrictions on how muchwater can be used nor charge the farmer extra for excessive withdrawal leading to over irrigationand wasteful practices. On the other side though,it’s also unfair to the farmer who doesn’t use asmuch water but is still charged. Economically the price of water can determine a person’s access towater if they simply cannot afford it. In theUnited States, drinking water on average costs$0.40 per cubic meter (m
³
) whereas drinkingwater in the MENA frequently reaches more than $1 per m
³
. Put into perspective if the averageincome in the United States is $50K and the Middle East is $9K, Americans are paying roughly1% of their income to water and sewage while in the Middle East a person is spending more than7% of their income.
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(Allan 1998)
Type/MethodCost per m³:LowHighPrecipitationfreefreeSuface Water0.01$ 0.10$Groundwater0.10$ 1.00$Pipelines0.60$ >$0.60Tankers and Bags1.00$ >$1.00Re-used Urban Waste-Water1.00$ >$1.00Desalinated Water1.00$ >$1.00
per Cost of Access in MENA
Figure 1 Data based on FAO 1995: 32, Table 18.
Invalidsource specified.
 

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