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Factor Affect Gonadal Development of Fish

Factor Affect Gonadal Development of Fish

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Published by Muchlisin Z.A

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Published by: Muchlisin Z.A on Dec 08, 2009
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06/07/2014

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Muchlisin,Z.A.
-
FactorsAffectGonadalDevelopmentandEggQualityofFemaleBroodfish
INTRODUCTION
Aquacultureisfanningofaquaticorganismsnotonlyfishesbutalsomollusks,crustaceans,andaquaticplants.Ithasbeenpracticedinvariouspartoftheworldforaslongas4,000yearsago.DeSilvaand~derson(1995)reportedthataquaculturewasfirstpracticedinmainlandChinasincemostofthefirstdocumentationonaquaculturewasfoundinChina.Inaddition,morethan2000yearsagotheJapaneserearedfishesinirrigationditches(Ackefors
etal.,1994).
Recently,fishlandingsfromnaturalresourceshavereduceddramaticallyasdevelopmentinseafishingtechnologies,methodsofseafoodpreservationandtransportationimprovementof.Ontheotherhand,marketdemandshaveincreasedovertheyearsashumanpopu-lationintheworldandawarenessonthenutritionaladvantagesoffishproteinincreased.In2020forexample,humanpopulationintheworldisexpectedtoreach8.5billioncomparedto6.0billionatpresent.Therefore,ascountriesseekforalternativestomeetthemarketdemand,aquacultureandmarineculturehavebeenidentifiedaspossiblesolu-tionstothisproblem.Forexample,in1998aquacultureprovidedabout25%oftheworld'sfishsupplycomparedto8%in1984(Kalyani,2002).However,oneofthemainprobleminaquacultureishighmortalityoflarvaethatresultedin
412
lowproductionoffishculture.Applica-tionofagoodbroodstockandlarvalmanagementprogramsarewaysthatcanbeusedtoovercometheseproblemsandincreaseproductionoffish.Agoodmanagementofbroodstockwillresultedinhighqualityofegg,spermandlarvaeaswell.Therearemanyfactorshavebeenidentifiedasfactorsinfluencingeggqualityandreproductiveperformanceoffishfemalebroodstock,suchasnutritionintermofproteins,lipids,carbohydrates,vitaminsandminerals;broodfishandenvironmentalcondition.Nutritionisamainfactorthatinfluenceeggqualityandreproductiveperformanceoffishdirectlyorindirectly.Liketerrestrialanimals,fishneedsprotein,lipid,carbohydrate,mineralsandvitaminforgrowingandmaintainingheirbody.Ithasalsobeenwellknownthatthegrowthrateofbroodfishislowerthanthatoflarvaeduetothefactthatadultfishrequiresmoreenergyforgonadal.development(Steffens,1989).Sincethe1980s,increasingatten-tionhasbeenpaidtotheroleofindividualnutrientcomponentsinthedietofbroodstock.Themajorgroupoffeedcomponents,ncludingprotein,fattyacid,andvitaminhavebeenexamined(Furuita
etal.,2001).
Besidesthenutritionalcomponents,ratiosizeofbroodstockcanalsoaffect
 
ISSN0853
-
7240
eggandfryquality.Inrainbowtrout
(Salmogairdneri)
forexample,theeggsandfryproducedbybroodstockgivenahalfdailyration(0.35%bodyweightperday)weresignificantlyrnaller(eggweightof63.7mg,andfryweightof94.6mg)thanthoseofthefull-rationof0.7%bodyweightperday(82.9mgeggweightand105.1mgfryweight)respectively,althoughbroodstockrationsizehadnoeffectupontheaminoacidcompositionofeggproduced(Knox
etal.,1988).
Similarly,AliandWootton(1999)reportedthatfemalethree-spinedsticklebass
Gasterosteusaculatus,
fedwithhighrations(16%ofBWperday)showedanincreaseinbatchfecundity,andlowration(4%ofBWperday)resultedinanincreaseinthenumberofdaysuntilthenextspawning.Indeed,dailyandseasonalratesoffeedingofbroodstockdietscanaffecttofecundityandeggsizeoffish(Carrillo
etal.,2000).
PROTEIN
Proteinisanessentialcomponentofthecellnucleus,internalorgans,brain,nervesandskin.Proteinislargeorganicmoleculethatcontaincarbon,hydrogen,oxygen,nitrogenandoftensulphur.Thebasiccompositionofmostproteinsaresimilar;C=50-55%,H=6-8%,0=20-23%,N=15-18%,S=0-4%.Thefim-damentalstructuralunitoftheproteinmoleculeisaminoacid,whichcomprises
Biologi,Vol.
4,
No.6,Desember2005
of20naturallyoccurringtypes(Jobling,1995).Tacon(1987)citedthatenzymeswhichareproteins,playacriticalroleincellularmetabolismsinceallbiochemicalreactiondependsonenzymes.Enzymesareessentialforcarbohydrateandlipidmetabolism,forsynthesisoftissueproteinsandmanyimportantcompounds,andproteincanalsoformasourceofenergyforfish.Ingeneral,aminoacidcanbeclassi-fiedintotwogroups;theindispensable
aminoacids(arginine,histidine,isoleucine,leucine,lysine,methionine,phenylalanine,
threonine,tryptophan,valine,andthedispensableaminoacids(glycine,alanine,serine,tyrosine,cysteine,proline,hydroxyproline,asparticacid,glutamicacid,andornithine).Indispensableaminoacidsareaminoacidsthatcannotbesynthesizedwithintheanimalbodyoratarateinsufficienttomeetthephysiologicalneedsofthegrowinganimal,andmustthereforebesuppliedfromthediet.Ontheotherhand,dispensableaminoacidsarethosethatcanbesynthesizedinthebodyfromasuitablecarbonsourceandotheraminoacidsorsimplecompoundssuchasdiammoniumcitrate,andconse-quentlymaynotbesuppliedinreadymadeforminthediet(DeSilvaandAnderson,1995).Proteinisaveryexpensivecompo-nentinfishdietsandaccountsforasmuch
413
 
Muchlisin,Z.A.
-
FactorsAffectGonadalDevelopmentandEggQualityofFemaleBroodfish
as40-70%oftheaquacultureoperationalcost.Therefore,informationoftheoptimumdietaIyproteinrequirementforthedifferentfishspeciesatdifferentstagesofgrowthisessential.Inbroodstock,Eskalinen(1989)reportedthattherelativefecundity(thenumberofeggsproducedperbodyweightoffemaIe)andeggsizeofAtlanticsalmonwashigherwhentheywerefed31%dietaryproteinlevelofsemimoistfeed.Similarly,Alhafedh
etal.(1999)
reportedthattherelativefecundityofNiletilapiaincreasedwithincreasingthedietaryproteinlevels,andwassignifi-cantlyhigherat25-35%dietaryproteinthanthosefishfed40-45%protein,butdietaIyproteinlevelsbetweenof25%to45%hadnosignificantinfluenceoneggsizeandweight.AsimilarresultwasreportedbyCisse(1988),whoreportedthatthehighestspawningfrequencyandeggproductionwereobtainedfromfemalesfedwith30%proteincomparedtothoseof20%,25%,35%,40%or50%dietaryprotein.Reducedfecundityhavebeenreportedinseveralfishspecies,wherethecausecouldeitherbetheinfluenceofanutrientimbalanceonthebrain-pituitary-gonadendocrinesystemorbytherestrictionintheavailabilityofbiochemicalcomponentforeggforma-tion(Izquierdo
etal.,
2001).Dietaryproteinlevelinfluencespuberty,oocytedevelopment,spawningperformance,andeggqualityofNile
414
tilapia,
Oreachromisni/oticus.
Niletilapia
fedalowproteindiet«17%)didnotshowoocytematuration,whilefemalesfed25%proteinshowedsloweroocytegrowth,andfemalesfed>32%proteinlevelshadearlyoocytegrowthandmaturation(Gunasekera
etal.,1995).
Furthermore,Gunasekera
etal.
(1996b)laterreportedthatNiletilapiabroodstockfed20and35%proteindietproducedahighernumberofeggsperspawn(totalfecundity)thanthosefed10%protein,buteggsizeandrelativefecunditydidnotdiffersignificantlybetweenthetreatments.Inseabass,
Dicentrarchuslabrax
thefecundityandreproductiveperformancewerebetteratahigherdietaryproteinlevelof51%(Cerda
etal.,
1994).
WeeandTuan(1988)reportedthattheoptimumdietaryproteinlevelforspawning
Oreochromisni/oticus
was35%.Broodstockfedwithdietscontaining20%proteinwerespawnedlately,whileothergroupsfedwithhigherdietaryproteinlevelof27.5%,35%,42.5%and50%spawnedearlier.Moreover,theabsoluteandrelativefecunditieswerefoundtobesignificantlyhigherinthefishfedwitha27.5%and35%dietaryproteinthanthosefedwithhigherproteinlevelsof42.5and50%.However,highproteindietsproducedheavierandlargereggsatshorterspawninginterval.Proteinsareultimatelydegradedintoaminoacidsthatareutilizedeitherasanenergysourceorforsomaticprotein

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