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Core Connections Algebra 2 Resource Guide

Core Connections Algebra 2 Resource Guide

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Published by: The Math Magazine on Sep 01, 2014
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Chapter 1 Parent Guide with Extra Practice 1
INVESTIGATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 1.1.1 1.1.4
This opening section introduces the students to many of the big ideas of Algebra 2, as well as different ways of thinking and various problem solving strategies. Students are also introduced to their graphing calculators. They also learn the appropriate use of the graphing tool, so that time is not wasted using it when a problem can be solved more efficiently by hand. Not only are students working on challenging, interesting problems, they are also reviewing topics from earlier math courses such as graphing, trigonometric ratios, and solving equations. They also practice algebraic manipulations by inputing values into function machines and calculating each output. For further information see the Math Notes boxes in Lessons 1.1.1, 1.1.2, and 1.1.3.
Example 1
Talula’s function machine at right shows its inner “workings,” written in function notation. Note that
 y
 =
10
 x
2
 is an equivalent form. What will the output be if: a. 2 is dropped in? b.
2
 is dropped in? c.
10
 is dropped in? d.
3.45
 is dropped in? Solution: The number “dropped in,” that is, substituted for
 x
, takes the place of
 x
 in the equation in the machine. Follow the Order of Operations to simplify the expression to determine the value of
 f 
(
 x
). a.
 f 
(2)
=
10
(2)
2
=
10
 4
=
 6
 b.
 f 
(
2)
=
10
(
2)
2
=
10
 4
=
 6
 c.
 f 
( 10)
=
10
( 10)
2
=
10
10
=
 0
 
d.
 f 
(
3.45)
=
10
(
3.45)
2
=
10
11.9025
=
 −
1.9025
 
 
 2
 Core Connections Algebra 2
Example 2
Consider the functions
 f 
 (
 x
)
=
 x
3
 x
 and
g
(
 x
)
=
 x
 +
 5
( )
2
. a. What is
 f 
 (4)
? b. What is
g
(4)
? c. What is the domain of
 f 
 (
 x
)
? d. What is the domain of
g
(
 x
)
? e. What is the range of
 f 
 (
 x
)
? f. What is the range of
g
(
 x
)
? Solution: Substitute the values of
 x
in the functions for parts (a) and (b):
 f 
(4)
=
43
4
=
 2
1
=
 −
2
 
g
(4)
=
 4
 +
 5
( )
2
=
 (9)
2
=
 81
 The domain of
 f 
 (
 x
)
 is the set of
 x-
values that are “allowable,” and this function has some restrictions. First, we cannot take the square root of a negative number, so
 x
 cannot be less than zero. Additionally, the denominator of a fraction cannot be zero, so
 x 
 
 3
. Therefore, the domain of
 f 
 (
 x
)
is
 x 
 
0,
 x 
 ≠
3
. For
g
(
 x
)
, we could substitute any number for
 x
, add five, and then square the result. This function has no restrictions so the domain of
g
(
 x
)
 is all real numbers. The range of these functions is the set of all possible values that result when substituting the domain, or
 x-
values. We need to decide if there are any values that the functions could never reach, or are impossible to produce. Consider the range of
g
(
 x
)
 first. Since the function
g
 squares the amount in the final step, the output will always be positive. It could equal zero (when
 x
 = –5), but it will never be negative. Therefore, the range of
g
(
 x
)
 is
 y
 ≥
 0
. The range of
 f 
 (
 x
)
 is more complicated. Try finding some possibilities first. Can this function ever equal zero? Yes, when
 x
 = 0, then
 f 
 (
 x
)
= 0. Can the function ever equal a very large positive number? Yes, this happens when
 x
 < 3, but very close to 3. (For example, let
 x
 = 2.9999, then
 f 
 (
 x
)
 is approximately equal to 17,320.) Can
 f 
 (
 x
)
 become an extremely negative number? Yes, when
 x
 > 3, but very close to 3. (Here, try
 x
 = 3.0001, and then
 f 
 (
 x
)
 is approximately equal to –17,320.) There does not seem to be any restrictions on the range of
 f 
 (
 x
)
, therefore we can say that the range is all real numbers.
 
Chapter 1 Parent Guide with Extra Practice 3
Example 3
For each problem below, first decide how you will answer the question: by using a graphing tool, your algebra skills, or a combination of the two. Use the most efficient method. Show your work, including a justification of the method you chose for each problem.
 
a. What is the
 y
-intercept of the graph of
 y
 =
 23
 x
 +
19
? b. Does the graph of
 y
 =
 x
3
+
 3
 x
2
 4
 cross the
 x
-axis? If so, how many times? c. Where do the graphs of
 y
 =
 5
 x
 +
 20
 and
 y
 =
 −
 15
 x
 +
 46
 intersect? d. What are the domain and range of
 y
 =
 x
2
12
 x
 +
 46
? Solutions: Part (a): The
 y
-intercept is the point (0,
b
). Therefore, the
 y
-intercept can be found by substituting 0 for
 x
. In this case, the
 y
-intercept can be found by calculating
 y
 =
 23
(0)
+
19
 and hence the
 y
-intercept is the point (0, 19). Part (b): The most efficient method is to use a graphing calculator to see if the graph does or does not cross the
 x
-axis. The graph at right shows the complete graph, meaning we see everything that is important about the graph, and the rest of the graph is predictable based on what we see. This graph shows us that the graph intersects the
 x
-axis, twice. Part (c): It is best to use algebra and solve this system of two equations with two unknowns to find where the graphs intersect. This can be done by using the Equal Values method.
5
 x
+
20
 =
 −
15
 x
+
4625
 x
+
100
 =
 −
 x
+
230 (multiply all terms by 5)26
 x
 =
130 (add
 x
 and
100 to both sides)
 x
 =
5 (divide both sides by 26)
 y
 =
5(5)
+
20
 =
45 (substitue 5 for
 x
 in the first equation)
 Therefore the graphs intersect at the point (5, 45). Part (d): We need to find the acceptable values for the input, and the possible outputs. The equation offers no restrictions, like dividing by zero, or taking the square root of a negative number, so the domain is all real numbers. Since this equation is a parabola when graphed, there will be restrictions on the range. Just as the equation
 y
 =
 x
2
 can never be negative, the ranges of quadratic functions (parabolas) will have a “lowest” point, or a “highest” point. If we graph this parabola, we can see that the lowest point, the vertex, is at (6, 10). The graph only has values of
 y
 
 10, therefore the range is
 y
 
 10.
 –55
 
 x  y
10
 
5
 
5
 
10
 
15
 
20
 
 x
 
 y

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