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Biology Project

Biology Project



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Published by purest123
My lower kingdoms handbook/booklet
My lower kingdoms handbook/booklet

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Published by: purest123 on Mar 29, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Lower Kingdoms
 A kingdom by kingdom look at viruses, fungus, bacteria and protozoa 
Marshall Jiang
5th Period • Chiles High School • March 27, 2008Marshall Jiang • email: marshall.jiang@gmail.com • Biology
Pros Cons
The ability of virusto insert their DNAinto cells allowsgene therapy totake advantage ofthemThe viruses caneasily replicate,evolve and evadecells at the cell
sexpense, some-times causingdeath or the organ-ism
Lytic Infection Lysogenic Infec-tion
The host cell
s ma-chinery are con-verted to producethe virus. The ribo-somes and en-zymes make thevarious parts of thevirus and the celllyses to release thevirusesThe virus
s DNA isinserted into thecellular DNA so thatthe virus
s DNA isreplicated with thecell. The virus mayescape from time totime, infecting othercells or may go intoa lytic cycle.A virus is not considered alive due tothe fact that:1.they have no metabolism2.they form crystals, a property ofchemicals3.they are dependent upon a hostcell to reproduce4.They do not respond to stimuliPossible defence/treatment of a viralinfection is to use restriction enzymesthat recognize the virus
s DNA. Theenzyme then will cut and remove theDNA, allowing the cell to resumenormal operation.
 Virus DefenseDead or Alive?
The most common types of edible fungus aremushrooms. Other edible uses for fungus in-cludes using their spores to foment thegrowth of mold in cheeses.Some examples are:
1. Stilton Cheese
2. Portobello Mushrooms
3. Straw Mushrooms
In the 20th century, the destruction of elm trees in theUnited States and Europe was caused by the fungus
Ceratocystis ulmi 
. The disease is mainly transferredthrough the Elm beetles.The fungus,
Phytophthora infestans 
, is responsible forthe potato famine of the 1840
s. The resulting famineleft over 1 million dead and more than 1.5 million leftIreland. This blight is currently also a big threat to po-tato crops now as a new strain appeared which is ex-tremely virulent and destructive.Fungus rarely infect humans because most ofthem are facultative parasites. Some examples ofhuman diseases caused by fungus includes:
Conidiobolus coronatus 
- Nasal polyps andsinus infection
Ustilago maydis 
- skin lesions
• Schizophyllum commune 
- A wood decom-posing mushroom sometimes found in fingernails1.Deuteromycota - No spore, reproducesasexually2.Chytridiomycota (chytrids) - Producesspores that are capable of movement witha flagellum3.Basidiomycota (club fungi) - producesmeiospores (produced by meiosis, hap-loid)
Past InfectionsTypes of FungusEdible FungusHuman diseases

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