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Active Filters

Active Filters

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Active Filters
Active Filters

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4
Active Filters
Rolf Schaumann 4.1
Department of Electrical and
4.2
Computer Engineering,Portland State University,Portland, Oregon, USA
Introduction .......................................................................................127Realization Methods .............................................................................128
4.2.1 Cascade Design • 4.2.2 Realization of Ladder Simulations • 4.2.3 Transconductance-C(OTA- C) Filters
References ..........................................................................................138
4.1 Introduction
Electrical filters are circuits designed to shape the magnitudeand/or phase spectrum of an input signal to generate a desiredresponse at the output. Thus, a frequency range can be definedas the passband where the input signal should be transmittedthrough the filter undistorted and unattenuated (or possiblyamplified); stopbands require transmission to be blocked orthe signal to be at least highly attenuated. In the frequencydomain, the transmission characteristic is described by the
transfer function:
T(s) -- --
gout
Nm( s)gin Dn(s)
bins m + bm is m-1 + " + bxs + bo
S n if- an-1 sn-1 if- • + als + ao
(4.1)The nth-order function
T(s)
is a ratio of two polynomials infrequency s = rio. In a passband, the transfer function shouldbe approximately a constant, typically unity (i.e., [T(flo)] ~ 1),so that the attenuation is eL = -20log ]T(flo)] ~ 0dB. In thestopband, we need ]T(flo)] << 1 so that the attenuation eL islarge, say oL = 60dB for ]T(flo)] = 0.001.
Nm(s)
and
D,(s),
with n > m, are chosen so that the attenuation specificationis as prescribed (Schaumann and van Valkenburg, 2001). Allnumerator coefficients
bj
are real and, for stable circuits, alldenominator coefficients
ai
are positive. As a realistic example,consider a low-pass filter. Its passband attenuation mustvary by no more than 0.1 dB in 0 _< f _< 21 kHz; the stop-band attenuation must be at least 22 dB in f _> 26 kHz, andit is required to have 12.5-dB low-frequency gain. Theserequirements call for the fifth-order elliptic function (Zverev,1967):
T(s)
9.04(s4 + 2,718.9s2 + 1,591,230.9)s5 + 40.92s4 + 897.18s3 + 28,513.8fl + 400, 103.6s + 3,411,458.7' (4.2)
where the frequency is normalized with respect to 1 krad/s. Asketch of the function is shown in Figure 4.1.The denominator polynomial of
T(s)
in equation 4.1 can befactored to display its n roots, the poles, which are restricted tothe left half of the s plane. Assuming that n is even and keepingconjugate complex terms together, the factored expression is aswritten here:
Dn(s) =
Sn + a,_ls "-1 + ... + als + ao
i( o,o/_= + + .,oi)-
i=l
(4.3)
+10-
rn"o
"~ -20.¢D-50-
FIGURE 4.1
Equation 4.2-22 ............ ~L10 20 30 40 50Frequency / kHzSketch of the Elliptic Low-Pass Filter Characteristic of
Copyright © 2005 by AcademicPress.
127
All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
 
128
Roll Schaumann
The variable COot represents the pole frequencies, and
Qi
refersto the pole quality factors of the conjugate complex pole pairs:
Pi, Pi
= --COOi
+j 1 - ~i "
(4.4)Note that Qi > 0 for stable circuits with poles in the left half ofthe s plane and that the poles are complex if Qi > 1/2. If n isodd, the product in equation 4.3 contains one first-order term.Similarly,
Nm(s)
may be factored to give:
Nm(S) = bm sm q- bm-1 sm-1 q-- "'" q- bls + bom/2= H (k2js2 + kljS + koj),
j=l(4.5)where a first-order term (i.e.,
kzj
= 0) will appear if rn is odd.The roots
of Nm(s)
are the transmission zeros of
T(s)
and maylie anywhere in the s plane. Thus, the signs of
kij
are unre-stricted. For example,
klj
= 0 for transmission zeros on the jcoaxis. Assuming now m = n, the following is true:
m/2
I-[ (k2j s2 +
klj5 q- koj)
N~(s) i=l
T(s) -- --D.(s) n/2
H ( s2 +
Scooi/Qi + co2 )
(4.6)
i=1
= I--I k2is2 + klis + k°i = fi Ti(s).
In case rn < n, the numerator of equation 4.6 has
(n - m)/2
factors equal to unity. The objective is now to design filtercircuits that realize this function.For the fifth-order example function in equation 4.2, factor-ing results in three sections:
T(s) = TI(s)T2(s)T3(s)
38.73 0.498(s 2 Jr 29.22) 0.526(s 2 + 43.22)= s + 16.8 s2 + 19.4s + 20.012
s2 +
4.72s + 22.522'(4.7)where the gain constants are determined to equalize 1 the signallevel throughout the filter and to realize a 12.5-dB passbandgain. Obtained were two second-order low-pass functions,each with a finite transmission zero (at 29.2kHz and at43.2 kHz), and one first-order low-pass.1 Since the signal level that an op-amp can handle without distortion isfinite and the circuits generate noise, dynamic range is limited. To maximizedynamic range, the first- and second-order blocks in equation 4.7 are cascadedin Figure 4.4 in the order of increasing Q values, and the gain constants arechosen such that the signal level throughout the cascade stays constant.
4.2 Realization Methods
Typically, filter applications have sharp transitions betweenpassbands and stopbands and have complex poles close tothe jco axis; that is, their quality factors, Qi, are large. Therealization of such high-Q poles requires circuit impedancesthat change their values with frequency very rapidly. Thisproblem has been solved traditionally with resonance: theimplementation requires inductors, L, and capacitors, C,because RC circuits have poles only on the negative real axisin the s-plane where Q _< 1/2. Because inductors are large andbulky,
LC
circuits cannot easily be miniaturized (except at thehighest frequencies) so that other approaches are needed forfilters in modern communications and controls systems. Apopular and widely used solution that avoids bulky inductorsmakes use of the fact that complex high-Q pole pairs can beimplemented by combining RC circuits with gain. Gain inactive circuits is most commonly provided by the operationalamplifier, the op-amp, or sometimes by the operational trans-conductance amplifier (OTA). It is very easy to see that com-plex poles can indeed be obtained from active RC circuits.Consider an inverting lossy integrator, as shown in Figure4.2(A), and a noninverting lossless (ideal) integrator, asshown in Figure 4.2(B). Using conductances, G =
l/R,
andassuming the op-amps are ideal, the lossy and lossless integra-tors, respectively, realize the functions:VB G 1
V 1 sC + Gq s'r + q
and
VL G 1
-- -- . (4.8)
VB sC s'r
The integrator time constant is -r =
RC
and the loss term is
q = R/Rq.
If these two integrators are connected in a two-integrator loop shown in Figure 4.3, the function realized is:
('
£
= s'r ~- q x (KV;,, + VD
(A) = (B)
FIGURE 4.2 Integrators (A) Lossy Inverting Integrator (B) LosslessNoninverting Integrator
 
4 Active Filters
129
1 ~ -1 I I, L- ~- 0
Vin " "
~ I s~ + q
_L _L
FIGURE
4.3 Two-Integrator Loop Realizing a Second-Order ActiveFilter (Note that one of the blocks in inverting so that the loop gain isnegative for stability).
or
VL K
Kin
S2T2 +
s'rq + 1 "
(4.9a)If we compare the denominator of equation 4.9a with a pole-pair factor in equation 4.3, we notice that the pole frequency isimplemented as co0i = 1/-r =
1/(RC),
and the pole qualityfactor is Qi =
1/q = Rq/R.
Clearly, we may choose
Rq
largerthan R, so that
Qi
> 1 and the poles are complex. In addition,a band-pass function is realized at the output VB becauseaccording to Figure 4.3, we have VB =
s"rVL
to give withequation 4.9a:
VB s~K
Kin
52'I 2 +
s'r q + 1 "
(4.9b)After this demonstration that inductors are not required forhigh-Q filters, we need to consider next how to implementpractical high-order active filters as described in equation 4.6.We shall discuss the two methods that are widely used inpractice:
cascade design and ladder simulation.
When analyzing the circuits in Figure 4.2 to obtain equation
4.8,
we did assume
ideal op-amps
with infinite gain A andinfinite bandwidth. The designer is cautioned to investigatevery carefully the validity of such an idealized model. Filters de-signed with ideal op-amps will normally not function correctlyexcept at the lowest frequencies and for moderate values of Q. Amore appropriate op-amp model that is adequate for most filterapplications uses the finite and frequency-dependent gain A(s):
03 i
A(s)
= -- ~ --. (4.10)s+~ sThat is, the op-amp is modeled as an integrator. The op-amp's-3-dB frequency, ¢, (typically less than 100Hz), can beneglected for most filter applications as is indicated on theright-hand side of equation 4.10. The cot is the op-amp's gain-bandwidth product (greater than 1 MHz). To achieve predic-table performance, the operating frequencies of active filtersdesigned with op-amps should normally not exceed aboutO.lcot. The Ackerberg-Mossberg and
GIC
second-ordersections discussed below have been shown to be optimallyinsensitive to the finite value of m and to behave very welleven when designed with real operational amplifiers.
4.2.1 Cascade Design
In cascade design, a transfer function is factored into low-order blocks or sections as indicated in equation 4.6. Thelow-order blocks are then connected in a chain, or are
cas-caded
as in Figure 4.4, such that the individual transfer func-tions multiply:
Vout
V1 V2 V3 Vo.t
---- X-- X--X ... X--
Vin Kin V1 V2 Vn/2 1n/2
= rlr2r3"" "rn/2 1
=
H ri,
i=1
(4.11)as required by equation 4.6. This simple process is valid pro-vided that the individual sections do not interact. Specifically,section T/+l must not load section
Ti.
In active filters, this isgenerally not a problem because the output of a filter section istaken from an op-amp output. The output impedance of anop-amp is low, ideally zero, and therefore can drive the nextstage in the cascade configuration without loading effects. Amajor advantage of cascade design is that transfer functionswith zeros anywhere in the s-plane can be obtained. Thus,arbitrary transfer functions can be implemented. Ladder simu-lations have somewhat lower passband sensitivities to com-ponent tolerances, but their transmission zeros are restricted tothe j0~ axis.To build a cascade filter, we need to identify suitable second-order (and first-order, if they are present) filter sections thatrealize the factors in equation 4.6. The first- and second-orderfunctions, respectively, are the following:
as+
b
Tl(s) - --
(4.12a)s+ffand
k2 s2 q-
kls -~- k0
T2(s) = (4.12b)
s2 + S~o/Q + ~"
In the first-order function, T1, a and b maybe positive, negative,or zero, but cr must be positive. Similarly, in the second-orderfunction, the coefficients kl can be positive, negative, or zero,depending on where T2 is to have transmission zeros. For
example,
T2 can realize a low-pass
(k2 =
kl = 0), a high-pass(kl = k0 = 0), a band-pass (k2 = k0 = 0), a band-rejection orFIGURE 4.4 Realizing a High-Order Filter as a Cascade Connectionof Low-Order Sections

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