4 Active Filters
1 ~ -1 I I, L- ~- 0
Vin " "
~ I s~ + q
4.3 Two-Integrator Loop Realizing a Second-Order ActiveFilter (Note that one of the blocks in inverting so that the loop gain isnegative for stability).
s'rq + 1 "
(4.9a)If we compare the denominator of equation 4.9a with a pole-pair factor in equation 4.3, we notice that the pole frequency isimplemented as co0i = 1/-r =
and the pole qualityfactor is Qi =
1/q = Rq/R.
Clearly, we may choose
largerthan R, so that
> 1 and the poles are complex. In addition,a band-pass function is realized at the output VB becauseaccording to Figure 4.3, we have VB =
to give withequation 4.9a:
52'I 2 +
s'r q + 1 "
(4.9b)After this demonstration that inductors are not required forhigh-Q filters, we need to consider next how to implementpractical high-order active filters as described in equation 4.6.We shall discuss the two methods that are widely used inpractice:
cascade design and ladder simulation.
When analyzing the circuits in Figure 4.2 to obtain equation
we did assume
with infinite gain A andinfinite bandwidth. The designer is cautioned to investigatevery carefully the validity of such an idealized model. Filters de-signed with ideal op-amps will normally not function correctlyexcept at the lowest frequencies and for moderate values of Q. Amore appropriate op-amp model that is adequate for most filterapplications uses the finite and frequency-dependent gain A(s):
= -- ~ --. (4.10)s+~ sThat is, the op-amp is modeled as an integrator. The op-amp's-3-dB frequency, ¢, (typically less than 100Hz), can beneglected for most filter applications as is indicated on theright-hand side of equation 4.10. The cot is the op-amp's gain-bandwidth product (greater than 1 MHz). To achieve predic-table performance, the operating frequencies of active filtersdesigned with op-amps should normally not exceed aboutO.lcot. The Ackerberg-Mossberg and
second-ordersections discussed below have been shown to be optimallyinsensitive to the finite value of m and to behave very welleven when designed with real operational amplifiers.
4.2.1 Cascade Design
In cascade design, a transfer function is factored into low-order blocks or sections as indicated in equation 4.6. Thelow-order blocks are then connected in a chain, or are
as in Figure 4.4, such that the individual transfer func-tions multiply:
V1 V2 V3 Vo.t
---- X-- X--X ... X--
Vin Kin V1 V2 Vn/2 1n/2
= rlr2r3"" "rn/2 1
(4.11)as required by equation 4.6. This simple process is valid pro-vided that the individual sections do not interact. Specifically,section T/+l must not load section
In active filters, this isgenerally not a problem because the output of a filter section istaken from an op-amp output. The output impedance of anop-amp is low, ideally zero, and therefore can drive the nextstage in the cascade configuration without loading effects. Amajor advantage of cascade design is that transfer functionswith zeros anywhere in the s-plane can be obtained. Thus,arbitrary transfer functions can be implemented. Ladder simu-lations have somewhat lower passband sensitivities to com-ponent tolerances, but their transmission zeros are restricted tothe j0~ axis.To build a cascade filter, we need to identify suitable second-order (and first-order, if they are present) filter sections thatrealize the factors in equation 4.6. The first- and second-orderfunctions, respectively, are the following:
Tl(s) - --
k2 s2 q-
kls -~- k0
T2(s) = (4.12b)
s2 + S~o/Q + ~"
In the first-order function, T1, a and b maybe positive, negative,or zero, but cr must be positive. Similarly, in the second-orderfunction, the coefficients kl can be positive, negative, or zero,depending on where T2 is to have transmission zeros. For
T2 can realize a low-pass
kl = 0), a high-pass(kl = k0 = 0), a band-pass (k2 = k0 = 0), a band-rejection orFIGURE 4.4 Realizing a High-Order Filter as a Cascade Connectionof Low-Order Sections