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Noise in Analog and Digital Systems

Noise in Analog and Digital Systems

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Published by Aaron Merrill
Noise in Analog and Digital Systems
Noise in Analog and Digital Systems

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Published by: Aaron Merrill on Dec 09, 2009
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2
Noise in Analog andDigital Systems
Erik A. McShane andKrishna Shenai
Department of Electrical andComputer Engineering,University of Illinois at Chicago,Chicago, Illinois, USA
2.1 Introduction ...............................................................................1012.2 Analog (Small-Signal) Noise ...........................................................101
2.2.1 Noise Categories • 2.2.2 White Noise • 2.2.3 Pink Noise
2.3 Digital (Large-Signal) Noise ............................................................105
2.3.1 Noise Categories • 2.3.2 Series Resistance • 2.3.3 Dynamic Charge Sharing2.3.4 Noise Margins
Bibliography ..............................................................................108
2.1 Introduction
Noise
from an analog (or small-signal) perspective is arandom time-varying signal that is generated in all passiveand active electronic devices. It can be represented as either acurrent or a voltage,
ix(t)
or
v~(t).
Over a fixed time period, t,the average value of noise is zero. Analog noise, therefore, iscommonly presented in terms of its mean-square value (I2m,or
Vfms).
It is sometimes also described by its
root-mean-square
value
( Irms
or
Vrms).
Noise in digital (or
large-signal)
circuits is the perturbationof one nonlinear signal, the
noise victim,
by a second non-linear signal, the
noise aggressor.
The perturbation is intro-duced by a parasitic coupling path that is resistive, capacitive,or inductive in nature. Since digital systems are typically char-acterized by voltage levels, digital noise is presented in terms ofvoltage and voltage transients,
v~(t)
and
dv~/dt.
The impact of noise differs for analog and digital systemsand leads to unique equivalent circuit models and analyticaltechniques. Analog noise is treated by linearized expressionsthat correspond to small-signal equivalent circuit parameters.Digital noise is analyzed by large-signal expressions that definelogic transitions. In this chapter, the characteristics of noise arepresented for both systems. Several examples are included foreach type of system.For further reading, several respected books are listed in theBibliography section of this chapter. These provide a more thor-ough background on analog and digital systems, network theory,and the introduction of noise to classical systems analysis.
2.2 Analog (Small-Signal) Noise
Noise in analog systems is typically characterized by its impactas a small-signal perturbation. In this form, noise is consideredto be an independent alternating current (ac) source (eithervoltage or current). Table 2.1 lists the nomenclature for dis-cussing analog noise. These measures are derived and definedthroughout the chapter.The relationships as a function of time for noise voltage,square noise voltage, and mean-square noise voltage are illus-trated in Figure 2.1; similar waveforms can also be shown forrepresentating noise current. If multiple noise sources arepresent, they are considered to be independent and uncorre-lated. Therefore, the cumulative noise contribution can beexpressed in mean-square units by:
• "2 "2
(2.1)
l 2 ~__ lnl -}- ln2 ,
as the sum of the individual mean-square components. In
rms
terms, the total noise is represented by:
1
/ '2 "2
ln, rms ~ Vlnl' rms q- ln2, rms"
(2.2)
Copyright (t3 2005 by AcademicPress.
101
All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
 
102
Erik A. McShane and Krishna Shenai
TABLE 2.1 Nomenclature in Analog (Small-Signal) Noise AnalysisName Current-referred symbol Units Voltage-referredymbol UnitsNoise signal
in(t) A vn( t ) V
Mean-square noise signal
i2 ( t ) A 2s v2 ( t ) 2
V rms
Root-mean-squarenoise signal ~/~ or/ .... Arms v~ or v
.... Vrms
Noise power spectral density St(f) A2/Hz
Sv(f)
V2/HzRoot noise power spectral density ~ A/x/Hz ~ V/x/Hz
Vn
v~
(a)
/
(B)
FIGURE 2.1Some noise also exhibits a frequency dependence. If thenoise mean-square value of spectral components in a narrowbandwidth (A ) is determined, then the ratio of that value toAf is defined as the noise power spectral density (the noisemean-square per bandwidth). Mathematically, the definitionis expressed in terms of noise current as:
S1(f)
= lim
i2(t)
(2.3)
f,S~o Af
The relationship can be reversed to define the mean-squarenoise current in terms of the noise power spectral density by:
I~ =
SI(f)df .
(2.4)Equivalent expressions can be derived for
Sv(f),
the noisepower in terms of noise voltage.
2.2.1 Noise Categories
Analog small-signal noise can be subdivided into two catego-ries: frequency independent (or white) noise and frequencydependent (or pink) noise. The spectrum of the former isconstant to frequencies as high as 10 ~4 Hz. In the latter, thenoise power is a function of
1/f n,
where typically n = 1(although some forms of noise obey a power relationshipwith n _> 2). The total noise power in an element, as shownin Figure 2.2, is the combination of both, and a clear kneefrequency is observed. The terms SIw and Sip are used to referto the specific contributions of white and pink noise, respec-tively, to the total noise power.Table 2.2 lists the common characteristics of small-signalnoise. The expressions are developed more fully in thefollowing subsections.
2.2.2 White Noise
White noise sources are composed of thermal (also calledJohnson or Nyquist) noise and shot noise. Thermal noise isgenerated by all resistive elements and is associated with therandom motion of carriers in an electronic element. It is afunction only of temperature. Shot noise is associated with thediscretization of charged particles and is always present in semi-conductor
pn
junctions. It is a function only of dc current flow.The thermal noise of a resistance, R, can be modeled as anideal resistor and an independent current or voltage source, asshown in Figure 2.3. The Thevenin equivalent noise voltage isgiven by:
log(St(f))~k.... ~_~
x\\
\, Stp()White oise
/
FIGURE 2.2
log(f)
 
2 Noise in Analog and Digital Systems
TABLE 2.2 Characteristicsof Analog (Small-Signal) Noise
103
Name Type
Dependence ExpressionThermal (or Johnson or Nyquist)ShotCapacitor bandwidth-limitedInductor bandwidth-limitedFlicker (or
1/f)
PopcornWhite Temperature
~ =
41(TRAf
White Current
~ =
2qlAf
tT-White
Temperature, bandwidth Vn,rms
= ~/~--
F~
White Temperature, bandwidth in, rms
= ~/~2Pink Current
~ = KR I~q v2 ~
A J
KDI Af
'~-A f
KM
kf
2 --
Vn'eq
WLC2ox
f
1
Pink Recombination o( --
f~
Constants:
= 1.38 x 10 23 V • C/Kq -- 1.6 × 10 19 C
KR
~,~ 5 X 10 24 cm2/~-~2
KD ~
10 21cm2 .Af 10-33C2/cm2(pJFET)
KM "~ ~
10 32C2/cm2(PMOSFET)( 4 × 10 3IC2/cm2(NMOSFET)
4kTRAf ,
(2.5)
n
z
where k is Boltzmann's constant (1.38 × 10-23V • C/K), T isabsolute temperature (in degrees Kelvin), and Af is the noisebandwidth. The Norton equivalent noise current can also heobtained. It is expressed as:
~,, = 4kTRA f.
(2.6)
A MOSFET's channel resistance also produces a thermal noisecurrent according to equation 2.6. Since it is informative to
)
R R ~
(noisy) (ideal) ~ (ideal)
<(A) (B) (C)
FIGURE 2.3compare the MOSFET noise current with the small-signalinput stimulus, the output noise current can be referred backto the source using the amplifier gain expression:
id = gmVgs,
(2.7)
such that the equivalent input noise voltage is as follows:
2
_4kTAf
(2.8)
Vn,
eq
Rg2
In the saturation regime, the channel resistance can be ap-proximated by
1/gm,
and the channel pinch-off reduces theeffective noise to about 66% of its nominal value. Therefore,equation 2.8 can be simplified to:8kT 1
2 -- Af. (2.9)
Vn,
eq
3
gm
Both MOSFET channel thermal noise source configurationsare shown in Figure 2.4. It should be noted that the input noisevoltage representation is valid only at low frequencies. As thefrequency rises, the admittance of gate parasitic capacitances
(CGD
and
Cos)
becomes higher;
V~,eq
s dropped partly on thegate impedance and partly on the output resistance of the

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