EPE-PEMC 2002 Dubrovnik & Cavtat P. 1
Finite-Element Models for Electrical Machines
T. Busch, G. HennebergerDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES (IEM)AACHEN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (RWTH)Schinkelstrasse 4D-52062 Aachen, GermanyPhone: +49 241 80 9 7636 / Fax: +49 241 80 9 2270e-mail: email@example.com
Electrical Machines, Modelling, Permanent magnet motors, Machine tool drives, Transversal fluxmotors
After a brief introduction, several examples of the use of Finite-Element models for ElectricalMachines are described by means of research works carried out at the Department of ElectricalMachines (IEM), Aachen Institute of Technology (RWTH), Germany. Static torque calculations withlarge Finite-Element models are as well presented as transient calculations of eddy currents .Another topic is a calculation procedure to determine the mechanical and acoustic behaviour of electrical machines . Finally a coupled simulation to calculate the dynamic behaviour is outlined,where two-dimensional Finite-Element calculations are coupled with physical machine models.
The development of electromagnetic devices as machines, transformers, heating devices and otherkinds of actuators confronts the engineers with several problems. For the design of an optimizedgeometry and the prediction of the operational behaviour an accurate knowledge of the dependenciesof the field quantities inside the magnetic circuit is necessary. The losses in the device have to becalculated for the construction of a suitable cooling system. If the noise has to be taken into account,the acoustic behaviour has to be predicted.
The physical correlations like the Maxwell equations are well known for many years, but theanalytical calculation methods forced a lot of neglect and simplifications. Corrections factorswere determined by practical experience to consider miscellaneous effects. Upcoming in theseventies of the last century, the Finite-Element Method (FEM) is today state-of-the-art forthe calculation of structural-dynamic, thermal and, of course, electromagnetic problems. Withthe improvements of the performance of personal computers and workstations the modelshave become three-dimensional with the number of elements increasing. The bandwidth of possible applications is advancing steadily and research projects are opening up newperspectives for the development of electrical machines.
Static and transient Finite-Element calculations of the electric and magnetic field enable the designersto optimize well known electro-magnetic devices with regard to the torque-to-mass ratio and thedynamic, thermal and acoustic behaviour. Furthermore, the Finite-Element method approves, thedevelopment and optimisation of new devices without the necessity of extensive prototyping.In this paper the design of new machines is demonstrated for a spherical motor and a transverse fluxmachine as well as the optimisation of well known machines with new tools. Here, a claw-polealternator and a permanent-magnet synchronous machine are acoustically and electrically simulated.