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Finite-Element Models for Electrical Machines by Henneberger

Finite-Element Models for Electrical Machines by Henneberger

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EPE-PEMC 2002 Dubrovnik & Cavtat P. 1
Finite-Element Models for Electrical Machines
T. Busch, G. HennebergerDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES (IEM)AACHEN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (RWTH)Schinkelstrasse 4D-52062 Aachen, GermanyPhone: +49 241 80 9 7636 / Fax: +49 241 80 9 2270e-mail: thomas.busch@iem.rwth-aachen.de
Electrical Machines, Modelling, Permanent magnet motors, Machine tool drives, Transversal fluxmotors
After a brief introduction, several examples of the use of Finite-Element models for ElectricalMachines are described by means of research works carried out at the Department of ElectricalMachines (IEM), Aachen Institute of Technology (RWTH), Germany. Static torque calculations withlarge Finite-Element models are as well presented as transient calculations of eddy currents [1].Another topic is a calculation procedure to determine the mechanical and acoustic behaviour of electrical machines [2]. Finally a coupled simulation to calculate the dynamic behaviour is outlined,where two-dimensional Finite-Element calculations are coupled with physical machine models.
The development of electromagnetic devices as machines, transformers, heating devices and otherkinds of actuators confronts the engineers with several problems. For the design of an optimizedgeometry and the prediction of the operational behaviour an accurate knowledge of the dependenciesof the field quantities inside the magnetic circuit is necessary. The losses in the device have to becalculated for the construction of a suitable cooling system. If the noise has to be taken into account,the acoustic behaviour has to be predicted.
The physical correlations like the Maxwell equations are well known for many years, but theanalytical calculation methods forced a lot of neglect and simplifications. Corrections factorswere determined by practical experience to consider miscellaneous effects. Upcoming in theseventies of the last century, the Finite-Element Method (FEM) is today state-of-the-art forthe calculation of structural-dynamic, thermal and, of course, electromagnetic problems. Withthe improvements of the performance of personal computers and workstations the modelshave become three-dimensional with the number of elements increasing. The bandwidth of possible applications is advancing steadily and research projects are opening up newperspectives for the development of electrical machines.
Static and transient Finite-Element calculations of the electric and magnetic field enable the designersto optimize well known electro-magnetic devices with regard to the torque-to-mass ratio and thedynamic, thermal and acoustic behaviour. Furthermore, the Finite-Element method approves, thedevelopment and optimisation of new devices without the necessity of extensive prototyping.In this paper the design of new machines is demonstrated for a spherical motor and a transverse fluxmachine as well as the optimisation of well known machines with new tools. Here, a claw-polealternator and a permanent-magnet synchronous machine are acoustically and electrically simulated.
EPE-PEMC 2002 Dubrovnik & Cavtat P. 2
Spherical motor
The spherical motor is a multi-coordinate direct drive with three degrees of freedom [3]. The sphericalrotor is able to rotate in three axes, a rotation
around the vertical axis and a declination in
- and
- direction (Fig. 1). Possible applications are machine tools and robotic devices, utilising theadvantages of this high-dynamic direct drive which contains no mechanical transmission elements likegears. The motor consists of a permanent-magnet rotor sphere and a stator hemisphere with a largenumber of stator poles. The guiding of the rotor is realised by a hydrostatic bearing to achieve highstiffness and low friction. The stator hemisphere and the stator poles are made of a soft-magneticcomposite to reduce eddy-current losses. The arrangement of the poles has a decisive influence on thetorque characteristic. The current-dependent torques are calculated with a combinednumerical/analytical method [4]. The static cogging torques have to be calculated with a Finite-Element-model of the complete motor geometry.Figure 1: Basic structure of the spherical motor
Combined numerical/analytical calculation method
Looking at Fig. 1, one can imagine, that the motor geometry causes large Finite-Element models withhigh element numbers. As a result the meshing and computational time is very high. Therefore it is notreasonable to calculate the torques with a Finite-Element model of the whole geometry for differentcases of current supply in order to optimize the stator pole arrangements. Otherwise the geometry istoo complicated to calculate the torques in an analytical way. Therefore a combinednumerical/analytical calculation method has been developed for the calculation of the total current-dependent torques of the spherical motor. The four most important steps of the method are:
Preparation of a Finite-Element model of one stator pole with its nearest neighbours andappropriate rotor magnets
Numerical calculation of the current-dependent thrust forces of this stator pole
Approximation of the thrust-force characteristic using trend functions
Analytical calculation of the total torques using the trend functions.Five different spherical Finite-Element models were created to investigate the thrust forces caused bya current injection to one pole in the model. The models consist of 7 up to 9 poles and differ in thepositions of the neighbouring poles, which surround the pole carrying the current. Fig. 2 shows themodel in case that this pole is located at the border of the stator sphere.rotor spherestatorhydrostatic bearingstator polespermanent magnets
EPE-PEMC 2002 Dubrovnik & Cavtat P. 3Figure 2: Finite-Element model of a motor section (mesh not displayed)The thrust forces have been computed with a solver package developed at the institute [5]. Fig. 3shows the calculated
- and
-components of the thrust force of the spherical motor. They result fromthe difference of a calculation at a current of 4 A and a calculation at 0 A, so they do not include thecogging forces.Figure 3: Calculated thrust forces F
and F
It is assumed, that the generated thrust force of one stator pole only depends on the position of thispole above the permanent magnets in the rotor and not on the positions of the neighbouring poles. Thetotal torques of the spherical motor are calculated by multiplying the thrust-force contributions of eachpole with the corresponding distance between the pole and the pivot axle. Therefore, the thrust-forcecharacteristics, which were calculated with the FE-models are approximated with trend functionsdepending on the pole position and the current. Fig. 4 shows the total torque around the normal axis T
depending on the rotation about the normal axis
and the declination of the normal axis
at a currentof 3 A. Using this calculation method, various stator-pole arrangements were investigated concerningthe achievable torques.Figure 4: Total torque T
around the normal axis
permanent magnetstator yokepole (carrying the current)stator polerotor yoke
80 Nm70 Nm60 Nm50 Nm40 Nm

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