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Humanoid Robotics

Humanoid Robotics

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Published by Walter Shields

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Walter Shields on Dec 10, 2009
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03/21/2013

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HUMANOID ROBOTICSPAST, PRESENT STATE,FUTURE
 Dharmasastha N, Rajeshwar V,
raje1590@gmail.com IFET College of Engineering, Gangarampalyam,Villupuram.
Abstract:
Humans are the mostadvanced creatures of the nature. I believe that humanoid robots will be themost advanced creatures of humans.Among the man-made creatures such asautomobile,hand-phonesand multimediadevices, robots of future will hopefully be the most ideal assistants to human beings. Robots can live up to thisexpectation because future intelligentand autonomous robots could freehumans from, or ease them up of,repeatedly undertaking physically andmentally challenging routines. For instance, Robot Doctor could providemedical advices, pre-diagnostic, andeven assist in surgical operation; Robot Nurse could assist patients in hospitalor at home; Robot Soldier could participate in military intervention, andeven fight terrorism; Robot Tutor couldhelp our students to have a bettelearning experience; Robot Guardcould make our society much safer;Robot Maid could keep our house cleanand secure, and even help look after elderly people at home; RobotRescuer could be deployed to placeswhere human lives are in danger. The listof potential applications with intelligentand autonomous robots is growing.
Keywords:
Humanoid robot, ZMP,semi- inverse method,active exoskeleton,active suit, force-position control,artificial intelligent,dynamic control,decentralized control.
INTRODUCTION
Rapid development of humanoid robots brings about new shifts of the boundariesof Robotics as a scientific andtechnological discipline. Newtechnologiesofcomponents, sensors,microcomputers, as well as newmaterials, have recently removed theobstacles to real-time integrated controlof some very complex dynamicsystems such as humanoid robots,which already today possess about fiftydegrees of freedom and are updated inmicroseconds of controller signals. Inview of the above statements, the work for the first time raisesThe essential question on the justifiability of increasing the number of degrees of freedom of humanoid robots,having in mind that for the overallskeletal activity man has at its disposalroughly about 650 muscles of human body which could be approximatelyexpressed by more than three hundredsequivalent degrees of freedom, i.e. thesame number of biological actuators. Inrelation to this, the work raises also somenew fundamental questions concerningthe necessary
anthropomorphism
of humanoid robots,howto definethe degreeof anthropomorphism, andfinally, how to achieve the highestdegree of anthropomorphism with alowest number of degrees of freedom.On the example of a humanoid robot,concrete measures are proposed how toachieve the desired Degree of anthropomorphism of humanoids.
 
The above-mentioned obstacles beingtaken down, along with the humanoidrobots playing mainlythe role of communicatorsand entertainers,there have appeared humanoids of quitedifferent aspirations in the domain of manipulation- locomotion activities of humans (case of sports-man on atrampoline, man on the mobile dynamic platform, running, balanced motion onthe foot - a karate kick, playing tennis,soccer or volleyball, gymnastics on thefloor or by using some gymnasticapparatus, skiing - balanced motionwith sliding, etc.). The work is also promoting some new ideas concerningthe already visible trends of expandingactivities of humanoid robotics to cover the above new tasks. The novelty isrelated to generalize approach to themodeling of humanoid motion. Insteadof a usual inductive approach that startsfrom the analysis of different real motionsituations and tries to make ageneralization, the work proposes a newdeductive approach.My opinion is that there are still limitedresults on human-like motion, while thefield of human- like communication has produced several viable alternatives. Onthe other hand, human-likeintelligence is the main obstacle to beovercome becauseofitscomplexityand multidimensionality;it is also responsible for coordinationof the entire personal robot behavior. And finally, bearing in mindthe current progress in the constantlydeveloping field of humanoid robotics,whose end products will certainlyacquire with time more and morehuman-like characteristics,we canask an ungrateful question: Can weimagine that it may not be long before biologists construct a ‘perfect personalrobot’ a real human cloned andgenetically engineered with all attributesof a perfect servant (a worker, a soldier)despite of all the ethical, legal andsociological problems that may arise? Inmy opinion, it will be possible to getcloser to human characteristics only if such progress is made in technologicalinnovations (artificial muscles, adaptivematerials, self- learning) that will allowthe performances of artificial systems become similar to those of man.intelligence is the main obstacle to beovercome because ofitscomplexityand multidimensionality; it is alsoresponsible for coordination of theentire personal robot behavior.And finally, bearing in mind the current progress in the constantly developing fieldof humanoid robotics, whose end productswill certainly acquire with time moreand more human-like characteristics,wecan ask an ungrateful question: Canwe imagine that it may not be long before biologists construct a ‘perfect personal robot’ a real human cloned andgenetically engineered with all attributesof a perfect servant (a worker, a soldier)despite of all the ethical, legal andsociological problems that may arise? Inmy opinion, it will be possible to getcloser to human characteristics only if such progress is made in technologicalinnovations (artificial muscles, adaptivematerials, self- learning) that will allowthe performances of artificial systems become similar to those of man
 
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BEGINNINGS OF THE ROBOTICS
The word robot appeared first in 1920,in the play ‘Rossum's Universal Robots’,written by the Czech writer Karel Capek.The play depicts perfect workers
 
 –robots,endowed with emotions enabling toincrease their productivity. Conceptsakin to today's robot can be found aslong ago as 450 B.C. when the Greek mathematicianTarentumpostulatedamechanical bird he called ‘The Pigeon’which was pro-pilled by steam. Al-Jazari(1136-1206) The first known functioningrobot was created in 1738 by Jacquesde Vaucanson. In 1893, George Moor created a steam man. He was powered bya 0.5 hp gas fired boiler and reached aspeed of 9 mph (14 kph). Westinghousemade a humanoid robot known asElectro. It was exhibited at the1939 and 1940 World’s Fairs, whereasthe first electronic autonomous robotswere created by Grey Walter at BristolUniversity, England, in 1948. If wewould like to relate the beginnings of robotics to the appearance of industrialrobots we should point out that GeorgeDevol patented in the United States afirst robotic device in 1954, whereasJoseph Engelberger, also an American,constructed first industrial robot in 1961.Therefore, the year 1961 was essentialfor the beginning of industrial robotics.Since 1970 we have witnessed anintensive development of industrialrobotics. Robots have replaced men primarily in those jobs that weredangerous to humans and harmful totheir health, and also introduced higher regularity and accuracy in machining of  parts, assembly of blocks and systems, aswell yielded increased productivity. For example, in the last 15-20 years car manufacturing has been automated andfully robotized, starting from the initialstage of forging,through enginemanufacture,to assembly of parts intothe final product – car, including its painting. carving and deboning, micro-robots for inspection of intestinaltract, and even carving and deboning,micro-robots for inspection of intestinaltract.A Turkish inventor designed andconstructedautomatic machines such as water clocks, kitchenappliances and musicalautomats powered by water. One of thefirst recorded designs of a humanoidrobot was made by Leonardo da Vinci inaround 1495. Da Vinci's notebooks,rediscovered in the 1950s, containdetailed drawings of a mechanical knightable to sit up, wave its arms and move itshead and jaw.These are, for example, robots for antiterroristic actions, for deactivatingexplosive devices, locating anddestroying mines, mending damages inthe electric power network withoutswitching off, picking fruits, concreteworks, digging underground chanals andtheir 
 
maintenance, cleaning tall buildings, replacement of damaged partsof tanks and pipelines, sheepshearing, robots-butchers for meatcarving and deboning, micro-robots for inspection of intestinal tract, and evenfor examination of the quality of bloodvessels, etc. There have been morefrequent.

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