HUMANOID ROBOTICSPAST, PRESENT STATE,FUTURE
Dharmasastha N, Rajeshwar V,
email@example.com IFET College of Engineering, Gangarampalyam,Villupuram.
Humans are the mostadvanced creatures of the nature. I believe that humanoid robots will be themost advanced creatures of humans.Among the man-made creatures such asautomobile,hand-phonesand multimediadevices, robots of future will hopefully be the most ideal assistants to human beings. Robots can live up to thisexpectation because future intelligentand autonomous robots could freehumans from, or ease them up of,repeatedly undertaking physically andmentally challenging routines. For instance, Robot Doctor could providemedical advices, pre-diagnostic, andeven assist in surgical operation; Robot Nurse could assist patients in hospitalor at home; Robot Soldier could participate in military intervention, andeven fight terrorism; Robot Tutor couldhelp our students to have a better learning experience; Robot Guardcould make our society much safer;Robot Maid could keep our house cleanand secure, and even help look after elderly people at home; RobotRescuer could be deployed to placeswhere human lives are in danger. The listof potential applications with intelligentand autonomous robots is growing.
Humanoid robot, ZMP,semi- inverse method,active exoskeleton,active suit, force-position control,artificial intelligent,dynamic control,decentralized control.
Rapid development of humanoid robots brings about new shifts of the boundariesof Robotics as a scientific andtechnological discipline. Newtechnologiesofcomponents, sensors,microcomputers, as well as newmaterials, have recently removed theobstacles to real-time integrated controlof some very complex dynamicsystems such as humanoid robots,which already today possess about fiftydegrees of freedom and are updated inmicroseconds of controller signals. Inview of the above statements, the work for the first time raisesThe essential question on the justifiability of increasing the number of degrees of freedom of humanoid robots,having in mind that for the overallskeletal activity man has at its disposalroughly about 650 muscles of human body which could be approximatelyexpressed by more than three hundredsequivalent degrees of freedom, i.e. thesame number of biological actuators. Inrelation to this, the work raises also somenew fundamental questions concerningthe necessary
of humanoid robots,howto definethe degreeof anthropomorphism, andfinally, how to achieve the highestdegree of anthropomorphism with alowest number of degrees of freedom.On the example of a humanoid robot,concrete measures are proposed how toachieve the desired Degree of anthropomorphism of humanoids.