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Disputed Handwriting An exhaustive, valuable, and comprehensive work upon one of the most important subjects of to-day. With illustrations and expositions for the detection and study of forgery by handwriting of all kinds by Lavay, Jerome B.

Disputed Handwriting An exhaustive, valuable, and comprehensive work upon one of the most important subjects of to-day. With illustrations and expositions for the detection and study of forgery by handwriting of all kinds by Lavay, Jerome B.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook, Disputed Handwriting, byJerome B. Lavay
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Disputed HandwritingAuthor: Jerome B. LavayRelease Date: November 10, 2004 [eBook #14003]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ISO-8859-1***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK DISPUTED HANDWRITING***
E-text prepared by Ted Garvinand the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team
"
 Handwriting is a gesture of the mind 
"The Project Gutenberg eBook, Disputed Handwriting, by Jerome B. Lavay1
 
DISPUTED HANDWRITING
An Exhaustive, Valuable, and Comprehensive Work uponOne of the Most Important Subjects of To-day.With Illustrations and Expositions for theDetection and Study of Forgery byHandwriting of All KindsBy
Jerome B. Lavay
The first work of the kind ever published in the United States.For the Protection of America's Banks and Business Houses.1909
TO THE AMERICAN BANKERS' ASSOCIATIONTHAT POWERFUL AGENCY WHICH HAS ELEVATED THE STANDARD OF BANKING IN THE UNITED STATES ANDAN INSTITUTION THAT FOLLOWS ALL WRONGDOERS AGAINST MEMBERS OF THE FRATERNITY RELENTLESSLYAND SUCCESSFULLY THIS WORK IS MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED
CONTENTS
CHAPTER IHOW TO STUDY FORGED AND DISPUTED SIGNATURESAll Titles Depend Upon the Genuineness of Signatures—Comparing Genuine with Disputed SignaturesAWord about Fac-simile SignaturesProcess of Evolving a SignatureEvidence of Experience in Handling orMishandling a PenSignature Most Difficult to ReadSimulation of Signature by Expert PenmanHard toImitate an Untrained HandA Well-Known Banker Presents Some Valuable PointsPerfectly ImitatedWritings and SignaturesBunglingly Executed ForgeriesThe Application of Chemical TestsRules of Courts on Disputed SignaturesForgers Giving Appearance of Age to Paper and InkProving the Falsity of TestimonyDetermining the Genuineness or Falsity by Anatomy or SkeletonMaking a Magnified Copy of a SignatureEffectiveness of the Photograph ProcessDeception the Eye Will Not DetectWhen PenStrokes Cross Each OtherExperimenting With Crossed LinesSignatures Written With DifferentInksDeciding Order of Sequence in WritingAn Important and Interesting Subject forBankersDetermining the Genuineness of a Written DocumentIngenuity of Rogues Constantly Takes NewFormsA Systematic Analysis Will Detect Disputed SignaturesDISPUTED HANDWRITING2
 
CHAPTER IIFORGERY BY TRACINGForgeries Perpetrated by the Aid of Tracing a Common and Dangerous MethodUsing Transparent TracingPaperHow the Movements are DirectedFormal, Broken and Nervous LinesRetouched Lines andShadesTracing Usually Presents a Close Resemblance to the GenuineTraced Forgeries Not ExactDuplicates of Their Originals—The Danger of an Exact Duplication—Forgers Usually Unable toExactly Reproduce Tracing—Using Pencil or Carbon-Guided Lines—Retouching Revealedunder the Microscope—Tracing with Pen and Ink Over a Transparency—Making a Practice andStudy of Signatures—Forgeries and Tracings Made by Skillful Imitators Most Difficult of Detection—Free-Hand Forgery and Tracing—A Few Important Matters to Observe in DetectingForgery by Tracing—Photographs a Great Aid in Detecting Tracing—How to Compare Imitatedand Traced Writing—Furrows Traced by Pen Nibs—Tracing Made by an UntrainedHand—Tracing with Pen and Ink Over a Transparency—Internal Evidence of Forgery byTracing—Forgeries Made by Skillful Imitators—How to Determine Evidences of Forgery byTracing—Remains of Tracings—Examining Paper in Transmitted Light—Freely WrittenTracings—A Dangerous Method of ForgeryCHAPTER IIIHOW FORGERS REPRODUCE SIGNATURESCharacteristics Appearing in Forged Signatures—Conclusions Reached by CarefulExaminations—Signatures Written with Little Effort to Imitate—What a Clever Forger CanDo—Most Common Forgeries of Signatures—Reproducing a Signature over a Plate of Glass—A Window Frame Scheme for Reproducing Signatures—How the Paper is Held and theInk Applied—How a Genuine Signature is Placed and Used—A Forger's Process of Tracing aSignature—How to Detect Earmarks of Fraud in a Reproduced Signature—Prominent Featuresof Signatures Reproduced—Method Resorted to by Novices in Forging Signatures—ConditionsAppearing in All Traced Signatures—Reproduction of Signatures Adopted by ExpertForgers—Making a Lead-Pencil Copy of a Signature—Erasing Pencil Signatures AlwaysDiscoverable by the Aid of a Microscope—Appearances and Conditions in TracedSignatures—How to Tell a Traced Signature—All the Details Employed to Reproduce aSignature Given—Features in Which Forgers are Careless—Handling of the Pen Often Leads toDetection—A Noted Characteristic of Reproduced Signatures—Want of Proportion in WritingNames Should Be Studied—Rules to Be Followed in Examining Signatures—System Employedby Experts in Studying Proof of Reproduced Signatures—Bankers and Business Men Should AvoidCareless SignaturesCHAPTER IVERASURES, ALTERATIONS AND ADDITIONSWhat Erasure Means—The English Law—What a Fraudulent Alteration Means—Alteredor Erased Parts Considered—Memoranda of Alterations Should Always Accompany PaperChanged—How Added Words Should be Treated—How to Erase Words and Lines WithoutCreating Suspicion—Writing Over an Erasure—How to Determine Whether or Not Erasures orAlterations Have Been Made—Additions and Interlineations—What to Apply to the SuspectedDocument—The Alcohol Test Absolute—How to Tell which of Crossing Ink Lines Were MadeThe Project Gutenberg eBook of Disputed Handwriting, by Jerome B. LavayCONTENTS3

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