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CDMA Capacity and Quality Optimization

CDMA Capacity and Quality Optimization

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Published by Sherin Kurian

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Published by: Sherin Kurian on Dec 11, 2009
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Key Radio Concepts
 Part 1 of this text,
“Key Radio Concepts,”
is provided for readers whoare not already familiar with the engineering principles of radio andhow they apply to cellular systems. It also will benefit radio expertsin two ways. First of all, it will help our readers explain theseconcepts to people in other fields and to businesspeople. Second,today’s code division multiple access (CDMA) wireless technology isbuilt on a series of developments going back over 30 years. It is easyto be expert in a system and not to know where it came from or tohave an in-depth knowledge of how it works. However, inunderstanding the history of our field and the challenges faced byour predecessors, we gain a deeper expertise, improving our ability tohandle the problems we face today.Chapter 1,
“Radio Engineering Concepts,”
defines the fundamentals of radio, including frequency, amplitude and power,and modulation. It also includes explanations of multiple access andmodulation, a description of how a radio signal is altered by anantenna and by the space between the transmitter and receiver, andhow we calculate signal power through those changes. In Chapter 2,
“Radio Signal Quality,”
we discuss impairments tothe radio signal, such as noise, interference, distortion, andmultipath. Chapter 2 also covers the measurement of radio signals, errors in those measurements, and the measurement of both analogand digital radio signals.Chapters 3 and 4 describe the components at the two sides of theradio-air interface, the user terminal and the base station. Chapter 3,
“The User Terminal,”
describes the components of a user terminal,commonly known as a cell phone. Chapter 4,
“The Base Station,”
describes the cellular base station: the antennas that receive the signal through the tower and cable, the power amplifier, the receiver,the components that transmit cellular signals, those which sendtelephone calls through the link to the mobile switching center, andthe base-station controller that manages the operations of the base station. There is also a discussion of component reliability modeling.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: CDMA CAPACITY AND QUALITY OPTIMIZATION
Chapter 5,
“Basic Wireless Telephony,”
 provides a picture of howall the parts of a cellular network work together to create the wireless signal path and how the whole cellular system is laid out, i.e., itsarchitecture. In Chapters 6 and 7 we describe the early analog and digitalcellular radio technologies. In Chapter 6,
“Analog WirelessTelephony (AMPS),”
we describe the original Advanced Mobile PhoneService (AMPS) analog cellular technology that pioneered thecellular architecture as the first radio system relying on managedinterference. In Chapter 7,
“TDMAWireless Telephony (GSM),”
weintroduce the world’s first and largest digital cellular system, Europe’s Global System for Mobility (GSM) time division multipleaccess (TDMA) technology, which is serving about 700 million usersworldwide in 2002. Having built a solid background in the fundamentals of radio andthe evolution of cellular telephony, we turn to code division multipleaccess (CDMA) in Chapter 8. In Chapter 8,
“The CDMAPrinciple,”
we discuss the underlying concept of CDMA, called
spread spectrum,
the mathematical derivation of the CDMAmethod of managed same-cell interference, and the principles of key CDMAcomponents such asthe rake filter and power control. We also describe how CDMAoperates in both the forward and reverse directions and how it performs handoffs as subscribers move from cell to cell.The CDMAcellular networks our readers support embody bothconcepts developed for the first analog cellular systems and also thelatest digital chipsets and technologies. With the background provided in Part I,
“Key Radio Concepts,”
cellular engineers will bewell prepared to understand the latest CDMAtechnology so that wecan design and optimize today’s CDMAnetworks.
2Key Radio Concepts
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Key Radio Concepts
Radio Engineering Concepts
We all know what radio is, at least enough to get by. This chapter is for our readers whocame to cellular from landline telephony or information technology and for those whowant a refresher in the basics of radio engineering.
Radio is electromagnetic radiation, a changing electric field accompanied by a similarlychanging magnetic field that propagates at high speed, as illustrated in Fig. 1.1. Ara-dio wave is
by creating an electrical voltage in a conducting
byputting a metal object in the air and sending pulses of electricity that become radiowaves. Similarly, a radio signal is
by measuring electrical voltage changes inan antenna, by putting another metal object in the air and detecting the very tinypulses of electricity generated by the varying electrical field of the radio waves.The technology of radio transmission is developing the ability to transmit a radiosignal containing some desired information and developing a receiver to pick up justthat particular signal and to extract that desired information. One of the latest tech-nologies to do this is code division multiple access (CDMA), a long way from the dit-dahMorse code transmission of the earliest wireless equipment. Both Morse code andCDMA, however, are digital radio technologies.We use radio to get some kind of information, a
from one place to another us-ing a radio wave. We put that signal onto the radio medium, the
we call it, withsome kind of scheme that we call
The Morse code sender uses the simplemodulation scheme of a short transmission burst as a dit and a longer transmissionburst as a dah. The demodulation scheme does the reverse: The telegraph receivermakes audible noise during a radio burst, and the listener hears short and long burstsof noise as dits and dahs. Morse code is simple and elegant, and it used the technologyof its day efficiently. All the components of the process of radio communications were already present in thetelegraph. There is a meaningful message to be sent that was coded into a specific for-mat, the letters of the alphabet. The formatted message, the
is then
by the telegraph operator into a radio message that is then
into somethingthat looks like the original signal. The receiver restores the message’s meaning, reading
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: CDMA CAPACITY AND QUALITY OPTIMIZATION

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