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(Phys)Compiled Definitions and Principles for ASlevel paper 1/Paper 2

# (Phys)Compiled Definitions and Principles for ASlevel paper 1/Paper 2

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03/19/2014

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TERMINOLOGY AND PRINCIPLESMeasurementsBase Quantities
- physical quantities that cannot be broken down any further
Derived Quantities
- physical quantities that are obtained by combining the basequantities i.e. can be expressed as product or quotient of otherphysical quantities.
Scalar quantities
– has magnitude only.
Vector Quantities
– has magnitude and direction.
Systematic Errors (AS)
– all readings have the same error
Errors which will result the scattered equally about the truevalue;
Can be reduced (but never eliminated) by averaging
Error is due to observer
KinematicsDistance
– total length along a specified path
Displacement
– Distance moved from a fixed point in a specified direction.
Speed
– rate of change of distance
Velocity
– rate of change of displacement
Acceleration
– rate of change of velocity
Note: Projectile motion
For any projectile
Its VERTICAL motion is at constant ACCELERATION
Its HORIZONTAL is at constant SPEEDLinear momentum - product of mass and velocity of an object and it acts in the samedirection as the velocity
Newton’s Laws
FIRST LAW
An object will remain at rest or continue to move in a constant velocity unlessacted upon by an external resultant force.
SECOND LAW
Rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the externalresultant force acting upon it and it occurs in the direction of the force.Rate of momentum α F

(mv - mu) α Ftm(v - u) α Ftma α FF= kma , k =1F = ma
THIRD LAW
If body A exerts a force on body B then body B exerts equal but opposite indirection to force on body A
Force, Energy and EquilibriumMass
– Measure of Body’s reluctance to change in its state of motion (i.e. its inertia).(Constant and a scalar quantity)
Weight
– Gravitational force acting on the object.(A vector quantity)
Centre of Gravity
– Point of which the whole weight of the body acts upon.
Centre of Mass
– Point through which an applied force causes no rotation.
Principle of Conservation of Momentum
– The total momentum of a systemremains constant provided that no external forceacts upon the system (isolated system).
*Applies for both elastic and inelastic collision as well as explosionUpthrust
– caused by the pressure that the fluid exerts on the object (on the top andthe bottom of an object)It is due to the difference in fluid pressure between the top and the bottom of the object.Acts vertically upwards(
Archimedes’ Principle
) Equal to the weight of the fluid displaced when abody is wholly or partially immersed in a fluid.
For an object immersed in a fluid the buoyancy force is equal to the weight of thefluid displacedCan be applied generally of not just when the object has a regular shape.
An object floats in water because the buoyancyforce on it is equal and opposite in direction to its weight.
For a body to be in equilibrium

Resultant force is zero in any direction (closed triangle)
Resultant moment or torque is zero about any point.
Stationary or move in a constant velocity

Moment of the force
– is the product of the force and the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the force from the pivot.
Couple
– consists of two equal and opposite forces whose lines of actions do notcoincide.
Torque of a couple
– is the product of one of the forces and the perpendiculardistance between the forces.(No linear acceleration) -therefore producing a turning effect.
The Principle of Moments
– states that for a body to be in rotational equilibrium thesum of the clockwise moments about any point must be equalto the sum of anticlockwise moments about the same point.
Work
– product of force and the distance moved in the direction of force.
Energy
– stored ability to do work.
Kinetic energy
– is the stored ability to do work due to its motion.
Potential energy
– is the stored energy available to do work due to its position orshape.
Principle of conservation of energy
– Energy may be transferred from one form toanother but it cannot be created nor is destroyed i.e.total energy of an isolated system constant.
Power
– work done per unit time
Electric FieldsElectric field
– is a region of space where a charge experiences a force.
Direction of electromagnetic field
– is the direction in which a positive chargewould move if it were free to do so.Shows the direction of force on the positive charge.
Electric field strength
– Force per unit positive charge placed at a point.
The closer the magnetic field the stronger it is.
Electric CircuitsElectric current
– is the rate of flow of charged particles.
Conventional current
– flows from the positive terminal of the battery to thenegative terminal (form a high potential to a low potential) i.e. inthe direction of flow of positive charge.
Flow of electrons
– is from the negative terminal of the battery to the positiveterminal (form a low potential to a high potential) i.e. in the direction of flow of electrons.
Direct Current
– direction of current is fixed.