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Designing Vaccines for Active Immunization

Designing Vaccines for Active Immunization

Ratings: (0)|Views: 401|Likes:
Published by net_set
live vaccines,killed vaccines,Recombinant vaccines,multivalent subunit vaccines,DNA vaccines
live vaccines,killed vaccines,Recombinant vaccines,multivalent subunit vaccines,DNA vaccines

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: net_set on Dec 11, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/13/2013

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Designing Vaccines for Active Immunization
First factor:- which
branch of the immune system
is activatedvaccine designers must recognize the important differences between activation of thehumoral and the cell mediated branches.Second factor is the development of 
immunologic memory
.failure to induce the formation of memory cells, leaving the host unprotected after the primary response to the vaccine subsides.The role of memory cells in immunity depends: on the incubation period of the pathogen.short incubation period :disease established b4 memory gets activatedmaintaining high levels of neutralizing antibody by repeated immunizationslonger incubation period ex polio virus 3 days to infect CNS. memory B cells time torespond by producing high levels of serum antibodyAfter immunization antibody level peaks within 3 weeks den declines memory responsecontinues to climb, reaching maximal levels at 6 months and persisting for years
their ability to induce humoral and cell-mediated immunityand the production of memory cells
 
 
Live Attenuated Vaccine
microorganisms can be attenuated so that they lose their ability tocause significant disease (pathogenicity) but retain their capacity for transient growth within an inoculated host.
growing a pathogenic bacterium or virus for prolonged periods under abnormal cultureconditions.selects mutantsthat are better suited to growth in the abnormalculture conditionstherefore less capable of growth in the naturalhost.
 
 
Live
attenuated strain
grow
M. bovis
on a medium : increasing concentrations of bile. After 13 years, this strain had adapted to growth instrong bile and had become sufficiently attenuated that itwas suitable as a vaccine for tuberculosis.
called
BacillusCalmette-Guerin (BCG)
The poliovirus used in the Sabin vaccinewas attenuated by growth in monkey kidney epithelial cells.The measles vaccine contains a strain of rubella virus thatwas grown in duck embryo cells and later in human celllines.

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