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Water Distribution System Rehabilitation

Water Distribution System Rehabilitation

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Published by Youssef

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Published by: Youssef on Dec 11, 2009
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Mr. Takeru TsuchiyaEngineer, Advisor, Division 3, Sector Strategy Development DepartmentJapan Bank for International Cooperation
1. Background
Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) proposes to draw the finalinstallment of allocated water from River Cauvery under Cauvery Water SupplyScheme(CWSS) Stage
, Phase
. Government of Karnataka (GoK) in India hasallocated 1,469 Mld of Cauvery Water to BWSSB. Under CWSS Stages
, and
,BWSSB is drawing about 614 Mld of raw water. OEFF funded, now known as JapaneseBank for International Cooperation(JBIC), CWSSB Stage
, Phase
at the final stages ofcompletion. Water supply components have been already commissioned and an additional315 Mld is being drawn from Cauvery river. Under CWSS Stage
, BWSSBproposes to draw the balance 540 Mld.Bangalore, the capital city of Katnataka state, is one of the fastest growing cities in India.The present population of about 5,7 million is expected to increase to over 7 million by theyear 2011 and the area covered by the city is projected to increase from the present 446 km
to 594 km
in the same period.Meanwhile, the major problem BWSSB is facing at present is the high level ofunaccounted-for water (UFW). UFW rate is estimated at approximately 50 % of water supply.These high losses increase the cost of supply and contribute to the substantial operatingsubsidies required from GoK. As a consequence of high UFW, especially due to leakage,consumers are not able to obtain sufficient quantity of water with adequate pressure for theirneeds. The water supply duration in the project area is around 6 hours on alternative days.Hence it is essential that UFW levels be reduced to acceptable levels as rapidly as possible.The additional revenue generated because of reduced leakage/UFW will improve financialstatus and ensure sustainability of waterworks.BWSSB has taken up a pilot project in UFW and the estimated cost of the works isabout Rs 480 Millions. In addition to CWSSB Stage
, Phase
, JBIC has also fundedthis project , specifically valves, meters and leak detectors, and the consulting services astechnical assistance.
Description of the Works
 Table. Statistics of the Pilot Project AreaPilot Project Area BangaloreArea 30 km
1,279 km
 (565 km
Urban, 714 km
Greenbelt)Population 400,000 4.84 millionWater supply volume 70 MLD 850 MLDNo. of connections 32,000 380,000Length of mains 302 km -The scope of the work includes carrying out UFW survey and remedial measures forabout 35,000 service connections and 302 km water of Distribution network. The workcomprises establishment of District Meter Areas (DMAs) within the pilot area for the purposeof monitoring of UFW and detection of leakage. Provide bulk meters to measure waterconsumption, inspection of allconsumer meters, fixing of new meterson unmetered water connections or onconnections where meters are notworking, testing of meters for accuracy,recording of consumptions on revenuemeter to measure water supplied tothe consumers. The differencebetween the input into DMA and watersupplied to consumers is the total lossof water in the DMA. Decidepermissible loss to get target levelsand carryout leak detection survey,identify leaks, repair leaks and retestthe DMA till loss of water is reduced totarget leakage level.Also, carryout conditionassessment survey of water distribution network in the DMA / pilot area and rehabilitatewater pipelines prone to leaks.Work also includes renewals/replacement of service connections using MDPE pipes wherenecessary.
ValvePipeValvePipeBoundary ValveBoundary Valve
District Meter
District Meter
DMAShut !
Shut !Shut !
Shut !Shut !
Shut !Shut !
Shut !
DMA is established with boundary valves which make DMAhydraulically isolated and limit inflow/outflow points of DMA.At limited inflow/outflow points, district meter will be installedto measure inflow volume of DMA accurately. UFW can becalculated as shown below.UFW = [Inflow to DMA] [Consumption in DMA (billedamount)]
Figure. Concept of DMA
Design of DMA shall be done with the aid of computer network models, high level modelcovering the project area and low level models for each DMA to ensure and demonstratethat the proposed DMA establishment works will be able to maintain adequate hydrauliccapacity of the DMA under 24 hours satisfied demand conditions as well as ensuring nounacceptable detrimental impact on supplies to areas adjacent to the DMA. The boundary ofthe DMA shall be watertight.Circulating valves, i.e. thosevalves that are closed in order toremove all loops from within the DMAthus producing a tree-like mainslayout, shall be identified and newvalves installed where necessary,which will make leakage detectionworks more easily and efficiently.The size and extent of areaswithin the DMA that can beprogressively isolated in order toidentify leakage levels across theDMA shall be determined to minimizethe need for step valvescommensurate with best step-testingpractice. New step valves shall be installed where necessary.
3. Current Status of the Project
Progress of the project is about 60 % as of the end of May. 2004. The current result isencouraging. In progressed DMA (DMA-3A), UFW has been reduced down to 53% of initialvolume. Besides in DMA-1, UFW has been reduced down to 54%. And in DMA-3C, UFWhas been reduced down to 70%. The status of the project is based on the data prepared byBWSSB and its consultant team.
Figure. DMA

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