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The Customs of Old England by Snell, F. J. (Frederick John), 1862-

The Customs of Old England by Snell, F. J. (Frederick John), 1862-

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THE CUSTOMS OF OLD ENGLAND
BY
F. J. SNELL

METHUEN & CO. LTD.
36 ESSEX STREET W.C.
LONDON[Pg 4]

First Issued in this Cheap Form in 1919
This Book was First Published (Crown 8vo) February 16th, 1911[Pg 5]
PREFACE

The aim of the present volume is to deal with Old English Customs, not so much in their picturesque
aspect\u2014though that element is not wholly wanting\ue000as in their fundamental relations to the organized life of
the Middle Ages. Partly for that reason and partly because the work is comparatively small, it embraces only
such usages as are of national (and, in some cases, international) significance. The writer is much too modest
to put it forth as a scientific exposition of the basic principles of medi\u00e6val civilization. He is well aware that a
book designed on this unassuming scale must be more or less eclectic. He is conscious of manifold
gaps\ue001valde deflenda. And yet, despite omissions, it is hoped that the reader may rise from its perusal with
somewhat clearer conceptions of the world as it appeared to the average educated Englishman of the Middle
Ages. This suggests the remark that the reader specially in view is the average educated Englishman of the
twentieth century, who has not perhaps forgotten his Latin, for Latin has a way of sticking, while Greek,
unless cherished, drops away from a man.

The materials of which the work is composed have been culled from a great variety of sources, and the writer
almost despairs of making adequate acknowledgments. For years past admirable articles cognate to the study
of medi\u00e6val relationships have been published from time to time in learned periodicals like "Arch\u00e6ologia,"
the "Arch\u00e6ological Journal," the "Antiquary," etc., where, being sandwiched between[Pg 6] others of another
character, they have been lost to all but antiquarian experts of omnivorous appetite. Assuredly, the average
educated Englishman will not go in quest of them, but it may be thought he will esteem the opportunity, here
offered, of gaining enlightenment, if not in the full and perfect sense which might have been possible, had life
been less brief and art not quite so long. The same observation applies to books, with this difference that,
whereas in articles information is usually compacted, in some books at least it has to be picked out from
amidst a mass of irrelevant particulars without any help from indices. If the writer has at all succeeded in
performing his office\ue002which is to do for the reader what, under other circumstances, he might have done for
himself\ue003many weary hours will not have been spent in vain, and the weariest are probably those devoted to
the construction of an index, with which this book, whatever its merits or defects, does not go unprovided.

Mere general statements, however, will not suffice; there is the personal side to be thought of. The great
"Chronicles and Memorials" series has been served by many competent editors, but by none more competent
than Messrs. Riley, Horwood, and Anstey, to whose introductions and texts the writer is deeply indebted.

THE CUSTOMS OF OLD ENGLAND
1

Reeves' "History of English Law" is not yet out of date; and Mr. E. F. Henderson's "Select Documents of the
Middle Ages" and the late Mr. Serjeant Pulling's "Order of the Coif," though widely differing in scope, are
both extremely useful publications. Mr. Pollard's introduction to the Clarendon Press selection of miracle
plays contains the pith of that interesting subject, and Miss Toulmin Smith's "York Plays" and Miss Katherine
Bates's "English Religious Drama" will be found valuable guides. Perhaps the most realistic description of a
miracle play is that presented in a few pages of Morley's "English Writers," where the scene lives before one.
For supplementary details in this and other contexts, the writer owes something to the industry[Pg 7] of the
late Dr. Brushfield, who brought to bear on local documents the illumination of sound and wide learning. A
like tribute must be paid to the Rev. Dr. Cox, but having regard to his long and growing list of important
works, the statement is a trifle ludicrous.

One of the best essays on mortuary rolls is that of the late Canon Raine in an early Surtees Society volume,
but the writer is specially indebted to a contribution of the Rev. J. Hirst to the "Arch\u00e6ological Journal." The
late Mr. Andr\u00e9's article on vowesses, and Mr. Evelyn-White's exhaustive account of the Boy-Bishop must be
mentioned, and\ue004lest I forget\ue005Dr. Cunningham's "History of English Commerce." The late Mr. F. T.
Elworthy's paper on Hugh Rhodes directed attention to the Children of the Chapel, and Dom. H. F. Feasey led
the way to the Lady Fast. Here and often the writer has supplemented his authorities out of his own
knowledge and research. It may be added that, in numerous instances, indebtedness to able students (e.g., Sir
George L. Gomme) has been expressed in the text, and need not be repeated. Finally, it would be ungrateful,
as well as ungallant, not to acknowledge some debt to the writings of the Hon. Mrs. Brownlow, Miss Ethel
Lega-Weekes, and Miss Giberne Sieveking. Ladies are now invading every domain of intellect, but the details
as to University costume happened to be furnished by the severe and really intricate studies of Professor E. G.
Clark.

F. J. S.
Tiverton, N. Devon,
January 22, 1911.
[Pg 9][Pg 8]
The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Customs of Old England, by F. J. Snell
PREFACE
2
THE CUSTOMS OF OLD ENGLAND
CONTENTS
ECCLESIASTICAL
I.
LEAGUES OF PRAYER
11
II.
VOWESSES
18
III.
THE LADY FAST
27
IV.
CHILDREN OF THE CHAPEL
32
V.
THE BOY-BISHOP
39
VI.
MIRACLE PLAYS
51
ACADEMIC
VII.
ALMS AND LOANS
61
VIII.
OF THE PRIVILEGE
71
IX.
THE "STUDIUM GENERALE"
91
JUDICIAL
X.
THE ORDER OF THE COIF
115
XI.
THE JUDGMENT OF GOD
127
XII.
OUTLAWRY
150
THE CUSTOMS OF OLD ENGLAND
3

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