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AP Biology Outline - Chapter 6

AP Biology Outline - Chapter 6

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Published by Omar Lopez

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Published by: Omar Lopez on Dec 12, 2009
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Alexis Omar López
Energy and Metabolism
Lecture Outline
I.Biological work requires energyA.Energy is the capacity to do workB.Energy is expressed in units of work (kilojoules) or heat energy(kilocalories)C.Organisms carry out conversions between potential energy andkinetic energy1.Potential energy is stored energy; kinetic energy is energy omotionII.Two laws of thermodynamics govern energy transformationsA.The total energy in the universe does not change1.First law of thermodynamics = law of conservation of energya)The total energy of a closed system remains constantb)Biological systems are open systemsc)Organisms can only convert energy to other formsB.The entropy of the universe is increasing1.In most energy conversions, energy is lost as heat2.Second law of thermodynamicsa)As energy is converted from one form to another, the totalamount of entropy (S) increases in the universeb)Entropy may be defined as an increase in disorder orrandomnessIII.Metabolic reactions involve energy transformationsA.Metabolism of an organism includes anabolic and catabolicpathways1.Anabolism includes synthetic pathways2.Catabolism includes reactions in which molecules are degradedB.Enthalpy is the total potential energy of a system1.Bond energy is the amount of energy required to break amolecular bond2.Enthalpy (H) is the total bond energyC.Free energy is energy that is available to do cellular work, andhence is of biological interest1.Free energy is the total energy available to do work and isexpressed in kilojoules or kilocalories as G2.G is inversely related to entropy3.H = G + TSa)H is enthalpy; T is the absolute temperature (°K); S is entropyb)If T is constant, E = free energy + entropy (unusable energy)c)As the temperature increases, entropy increases
Alexis Omar López
D.Chemical reactions involve changes in free energy1.The Greek letter delta (
) is used to refer to changes betweeninitial and final states2.
G =
H – T
SE.Free energy decreases during an exergonic reaction1.The total free energy of a system in the final state is less than thetotal free energy in the original state2.Exergonic reactions have a
G3.Exergonic reactions release energy and are spontaneousreactions4.These reactions still require activation energiesF.Free energy increases during an endergonic reaction1.An endergonic reaction is one in which there is a gain of freeenergy2.Diffusion is an exergonic processG.Free energy changes depend on the concentrations of reactants andproducts1.Reactions proceed to a state of dynamic equilibrium2.Cellular reactions are typically never at equilibriumH.Cells drive endergonic reactions by coupling them to exergonicreactions1.Coupled reactions may drive thermodynamically unfavorableendergonic reactions2.In energy coupling, one must look at the total
G of bothreactions3.Endergonic reactions are coupled with exergonic reactionsa)The breakdown of ATP is a good exampleIV.Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of the cellA.The ATP molecule has three main parts1.Nitrogen-containing base (adenine)2.Ribose, a pentose3.3 phosphate groups in a seriesB.ATP donates energy through the transfer of a phosphate group1.The bonds linking the 3 phosphate groups may be broken byhydrolysisa)These reactions have a large –
G (–7.6 kcal/mole)b)ATP is hydrolyzed to form ADP + P
c)This reaction may be coupled with an endergonic reactiond)Phosphorylation reactions occur when the phosphate group istransferred to another moleculeC.ATP links exergonic and endergonic reactions1.Phosphorylation is coupled to endergonic processesD.The cell maintains a very high ratio of ATP to ADP1.The actual free energy of ATP under cellular conditions is -10 to-12 kcal/mole2.The ratio of ATP to ADP is about 10:13.ATP cannot be stockpiled
Alexis Omar López
4.A resting human uses about 450 kg (100 lbs.) per day of ATP, butthe amount present at any given time in the entire body is lessthan 1 gram (0.03 oz.)5.Each second, approximately 10 million molecules of ATP aremade and recycled in every cellV.Cells transfer energy by redox reactionsA.Oxidation is the loss of electrons; reduction is the gain of electrons1.Oxidation involves the loss of energy; reduction is the gain oenergy2.These processes occur simultaneously, called redox reactionsB.Most electron carriers carry hydrogen atoms1.Electron carriers transfer energy to an acceptor2.Electrons lose energy as they are transferred between acceptors3.Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD
) is a common hydrogenacceptor in respiratory and photosynthetic pathways4.Nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP
) is involved inphotosynthesis5.Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is involved in cellularrespiration6.Cytochromes are proteins containing iron and are also electroncarriersVI.Enzymes are chemical regulatorsA.Nearly all enzymes are protein catalysts that speed the rate of chemical reactions1.Not all organic catalysts are enzymes; some nucleotide-basedmolecules function as enzymes as well2.Enzymes that catalyze specific chemical steps allow for cellularcontrolB.All reactions have a required energy of activation (EA)C.An enzyme lowers the activation energy needed to initiate achemical reaction1.Enzymatic action has no effect on the overall free energyD.An enzyme works by forming an enzyme-substrate (ES) complex1.Enzymes have at least one 3-dimensional area, known as theactive site or active sites2.The current model of enzymatic action is the induced-fit modela)The active site is not rigid, but binding of the substrate to theactive site involves conformational changes in both theenzyme and (typically) the substrateb)The enzyme and substrate form an ES or enzyme-substratecomplexc)After binding to the substrate, the product is released, andthe enzyme can be reusedE.Most enzyme names end in -ase1.Sucrase is an enzyme that reacts with sucrose2.Other enzymes have older names ending in –zyme3.Enzyme names such as pepsin and trypsin give no clues as totheir functionF.Enzymes are specific

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