that the term Äsport³ came to designate the Äindependent³ spirit of capitalism which is theembodiment of the principles
bellum omnium contra omnes
citius, altius, fortius
andappears as the sphere of Äfreedom³ opposite to work. As far as the principle of Ächivalry³is concerned, which is used by the ideologues of sport in order to give it a Äcultural³legitimacy, in its original sense it corresponds to a static aristocratic order in which thedominant social status is not acquired by a merciless struggle for survival, as it is the casein capitalism, but by birth.Sport acquired its institutional character in the second half of the XIX centuryand represents a way of dealing with the leading ideas of the French Revolution, criticalrationalism, emancipatory possibilities of the newly formed democratic institutions, aswell as with the philanthropic and dancing movements. It is not a product of an advanced bourgeoisie which, inspired by the spirit of the Enlightenment and ideals of the FrenchRevolution, strives to create a new society, but of the imperialist circles which strive todeal with the emancipatory heritage of the XIX century civil society and conquer theworld. The modern Olympic Games are an expression of the Ämondialist³ spirit of imperialism and as such rejection of the cultural (religious) being of the ancient OlympicGames, as well as of the Olympic ideas and movements of the Modern Age ± which are based on the Hellenic spiritual heritage, national cultures and the emancipatory heritageof civil society (Gutc Muths, Schartan, Brookes, Lesseps, Grousse...).In its original form, sport does not rely on bodily activism which is supposed toenhance the development of working or artistic capacities, but on the Ächivalroustradition³ which is of a belligerent character. Sports contests represent a war not waged by weapons, but by the bodies of Äopponents³, and thus are a struggle with the pacifistconscious and preparation for an armed conflict. Hence the ruthless Ärivalry³, whichinvolves the ability and readiness to kill the opponent, represents the main characteristicof sports Äbrotherhood³.
Sports terminology indicates its essence: sports contests whichdo not involve elimination are called Äfriendly³, which means that the competitions inwhich the victory is an imperative ± are hostile. The natural selection being the carrier of Äprogress³, it is understandable why the bourgeois theorists speak of war with suchenthusiasm: they regard it as the highest and the most direct form of the law of naturalselection. From Coubertin's Olympic doctrine it clearly follows that sport belongs to thesphere of war and military training and that it is the main vehicle for dealing with the pacifist conscious. The view of Carl Diem, a loyal interpreter of Coubertin's doctrine andone of the leading ideologues of German (Nazi) expansionism: ÄSport is war!³ (Ä
port ist Krieg!
³), most adequately expresses the essence of sport. It should not be forgotten thatCoubertin started the Olympic campaign with an overt aim to effect changes in theFrench education system, in order to transform the French bourgeois youth into colonial phalanges. A colonial
Äwithout proper sports preparations³ represents,according to Coubertin, Ädangerous
unmindfulness³. It is no wonder that England, as theleading colonial power, where there is place only for Ästrong individuals³, was the mainsource of Coubertin's Olympic inspiration. Furthermore, it is no wonder that Coubertin,in the bloody fights on ancient Olympic playgrounds and medieval tournaments of haughty aristocrats found a source of the Ächivalry spirit³ which a bourgeois should strivefor. War on a sports field was meant to preserve the militaristic traditions of the warringaristocracy and Äovercome³ them by a belligerent and progressistic spirit of monopolisticcapitalism. The ability to Älook death in the eyes³, which appears in the form of a man