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Acid Base and Salt Revision note

Acid Base and Salt Revision note

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Published by Hassan mahmud
Actually this is really helpful for you those who have taken igcse sallybus.You must read it*
Actually this is really helpful for you those who have taken igcse sallybus.You must read it*

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Published by: Hassan mahmud on Dec 12, 2009
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08/07/2013

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Revision note of chemistry
Acids, Bases and Salts
Acids?
 
Acids from animal and plant material are called Organic acid?
 
Acids that chemists have found ways of creating are mineral acids?
 
Mineral acids are strong acids and organic acids are weak acids?
 
Solutions of acids can be dilute or concentrated?
 
An acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in waterProperties:?
 
Acids have sour taste?
 
Change colour of indicators. Acids turn blue litmus paper red?
 
Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen and salt of the metalo
 
Some metals react slow (copper) and some react very fast (sodium)Metal + acid ? metal salt + hydrogenZinc + Sulphuric Acid ? Zinc Sulphate + HydrogenZn (s) + H
2
SO
4
(aq) ? H
2
(g) + ZnSO
4
(aq)o
 
Metal replaces hydrogen of acid ?
 
Acids react with carbonates to give carbon dioxide, salt and waterMagnesium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid ? Carbon Dioxide + MagnesiumChloride + WaterMgCO
3
(s) + 2HCl (aq) ? CO
2
(g) + MgCl
2
(aq) + H
2
O 
 
?
 
Acids neutralize bases to form salt and water onlyBases?
 
A substances that reacts with an acid to form a salt and water only?
 
They neutralize acids, the product being a saltAcid + Base ? Salt + WaterCalcium Hydroxide + nitric acid ? Calcium nitrate + Water?
 
Alkalis are soluble basesSodium Hydroxide + hydrochloric acid ? Sodium Chloride + WaterNaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) ? NaCl (aq) + H
2
O (l)?
 
Limewater is an alkali (calcium hydroxide). The test for carbon dioxide turns itcloudy (Calcium carbonate)Carbon Dioxide + Calcium Hydroxide ? Calcium Carbonate + waterProperties:?
 
Bases neutralize acids to form salt and water only?
 
Soluble bases change colour of indicators e.g. turn red litmus blue?
 
Soluble bases feel soapy (they convert some oil on your skin into soap).Decreasing agents; convert oil and grease into soap.?
 
Solution of alkali in water contains hydroxide ions OH
-
(aq). Because mostmetal hydroxides are insoluble, an alkali added to a solution of a metal salt willprecipitate an insoluble metal hydroxide.Weak and Strong Acids?
 
Acids that contain more hydrogen ions (ionize to a larger extent) react faster(e.g. HCl)?
 
This is a strong acid (nearly all acid molecules form ions)?
 
In weak acids, only some of the acid molecules form ions
 
?
 
Strong acids have lower pH numbers than weak acids of the sameconcentration 
Strong Acids Weak Acids
Hydrochloric Acid Ethanoic AcidSulphuric Acid Citric AcidNitric Acid Carbonic AcidWeak and Strong Alkalis?
 
A strong alkali exists almost completely as ions in solution?
 
A weak alkali, only some of the molecules will form ions in solution 
Strong Alkalis Weak Alkalis
Sodium Hydroxide AmmoniaPotassium HydroxideCalcium HydroxidepH/Universal indicator paper?
 
pH expressed the level/degree of acidity or alkalinity in an aqueous solution ora liquid?
 
universal indicator turns different colors in strongly acidic and weakly acidicsolutions?
 
comes in both liquid and solution?
 
Acids: pH number less than 7?
 
Alkali: pH number GREATER than 7?
 
Neutral Substances = pH = & Other Indicators

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