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Takavi an Advance Made to a Raiyat by His Superior Tenure Holder to Enable Him to Recover the Agricultural Losses Caused by Natural Calamities

Takavi an Advance Made to a Raiyat by His Superior Tenure Holder to Enable Him to Recover the Agricultural Losses Caused by Natural Calamities

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Takavi
an advance made to a
 by his superior tenureholder to enable him torecover the agricultural losses caused by natural calamities. The term
takavi
is thecombination of 
 'taka' (money) and Arabic 'kavi', which means strength orstrengthening. The Mughals and subsequently, the Company government used theterm takavi for repayable cash advance made to reinforce the cultivating strengthof the raiyats in distress. The term lost its currency from the late nineteenth centurywhen institutional agricultural credit was introduced by various cooperativesocieties, banks and other institutions. Because takavi as a concept was associatedwith zamindari credit, the modern institutions called it
krishi rin
or agricultural loan.
Takavi was an important agricultural institution during Mughal times. When
 wasaffected by any natural calamities such as
 , 
 , and epidemics the Mughal governmentused to suspend or minimise revenue collections and furthermore, made takavi advance towardsreviving the farming strength of the peasantry. Its distributing agents were the
 s and
talukdars
who were advised to lend takavi to raiyats and make its necessary adjustment onaccount of public revenue. The takavi advanced during the seasons of distress was collectedduring seasons of affluence. Such loan was always free from any surcharge like modern interest.The takavi system of agricultural credit as a state institution was abolished by the colonialgovernment. The Regulations II and XV of 1793 made it clear that takavi was henceforth a burden to be borne by the zamindars and other landholders alone and they could not claim anyconcession in the name of takavi advanced to their raiyats. Zamindars, however, had to continuethe takavi system of agricultural loan, because they were aware that without takavi, raiyats woulddesert. Therefore, in their own interests, zamindars advanced takavi loans to their raiyats at timesof distress. But with the growth of population and consequent competition for land, zamindarsare seen to have increasingly withdrawn the takavi credit from the early twentieth century. Theestablishment of peasant rights in land by successive tenancy laws is another factor for withdrawal of takavi by zamindars. [Sirajul Islam]
PLEDGE FINANCE SCHEME
 Since 1990, the MSAMB has implemented a scheme of pledge finance for the benefit of farmersof the State. The scheme of pledge finance is already popular among the farmers growing
 
Moong, Tur, Udid, Soyabean, Paddy, Sunflower and Chana. From last year MSAMB hasExpanded this scheme for Jawar, Bajra and Mage. This has safeguarded the interests of thefarmers, who otherwise had no option but to sell at whatever low price, that is prevalent during peak harvest season. Under the scheme, the farmer is given a loan to an extent of 75% for of thevalue of the produce prevailing in the market (for Jawar, Bajra and Mage 50% or rs.300/- whichis less), at an interest rate of 6% ( well bellow the market rate). The farmer is allowed to availthis facility upto a period of 180 days. There are 36 APMCs who are actively participating in thisscheme. So far in the year 2004-05 MSAMB has advanced Rs 15.30 crores as pledge financeunder the scheme. This scheme has evoked good response from farmers of the Vidarbha andMaratwada region.RURAL FINANCE GROUPThe Rural Finance Group in FAO promotes the development of sustainablefinancial service providers of all kinds, e.g., cooperatives, banks, microfinanceorganisations, self-help groups and traders, and encourages improved outreach tosmall scale farmers and non-farm rural entrepreneurs.Appropriate policies are essential to create an enabling environment for smallscale farmers and rural entrepreneurs to make profitable investments and for  providers of marketing and financial services to operate effectively. So policyguidelines are produced, with particular emphasis on those which promote theadoption of realistic rates of interest, the mobilisation of savings and appropriate prudential regulation and supervision. AgriBank Stat, an inventory of formalfinancial institutions involved in agricultural lending, is maintained with theassistance of GTZ.A major contribution to improving the efficiency and viability of financialinstitutions has been made through the development of the FAO/GTZMicrobanking System. This software is currently used in over 25 countriesthroughout Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. The Rural Finance Group also produces reports to provide advice and guidance to financial institutions, e.g., on better practices in agricultural lending, sources of funds for agricultural lending,safeguarding deposits, inventory credit and collateral in rural lending.Farmers and other small scale, rural entrepreneurs need advice, if they are tomake good use of available financial services and plan their financial futures better. The Rural Finance Group produces material to help extension staff andother community advisers to improve client level support and enhance people’s
 
money management skills.To achieve the objectives of improving rural financial services throughout theworld, close links are maintained with many organisations and particularly withthe Regional Agricultural Credit Associations (RACAs).The FAO Rural Finance Group is also engaged with a number of other international agencies in developing a strategy for improving the flow of infomation on best practices in rural finance and relevant training materials tothose who have most need of access to this information. The result of this partnership is theRural Finance Learning Centre, an online reference andtraining centre for capacity building in rural
Institutional Finance For Agricultural Development
 The credit for agriculture in India is provided both by organised and unorganised agencies. Theorganised agencies consist of co-operatives, Commercial Banks, Regional Rural Banks andGovernment. The unorganised agency consists of professional moneylenders, traders , relativesand friends, landlords and others. Moneylenders are the most important source, of late, thoughtheir position is declining in non-institutional finance. Since 1950-51 their predominace is stillcontinuing in rural areas. They freely supply credit for productive and non-productive purposes.Their methods of business are simple and elastic. But their activites are full of short-coming.They charge very high interest rates. In this study an attempt is made to know the impact of  banks finance on Indian Agricultural Development.About Author :Dr. M Lakshmi Narasaiah, has been working as Professor and Head, Department of Economics,Sri Krishnadevaraya university Post-Graduate Centre, Kurnool. Andhra Pradesh. he is Post-Graduate in Economics and has secured first rank. He has received Ph.D., Degree from SriKrishnadevaray as UGC JRF and UGC SRF. Starting his professional career in 1985 as anAssistant Professor of Economics in Sri Krishnadevaray University, Anantour, he has beenactively engaged in teaching and research for the past sixteem years. He was associated with theGovernment of Andhra Pradesh, Planning Department in their centre for Planning andDevelopment studies projects. He has extensively travelled abroad. He has to his credit 190research papers published in reputed National and International Journals, a large number of book reviews, and seminar papers besides supervising M.Phil., and Ph.D., studies. he is also workingon number of research project. He has frequently participated in antional and internationalconferences.
Non-institutional sources of agricultural finance andenvironmental degradation
The issues of land clearance and intensification of agriculture cannot be seen as issues relatedexclusively, or in many cases even primarily, to loan-making decisions by formal bankinginstitutions. While banks are the principal institutional source of capital, they are not always the

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