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Mathematical Methods of Engineering Analysis

Mathematical Methods of Engineering Analysis

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Published by Gaurav Kumar
Hi frnds this is for u it define the methods in the enginnering
Hi frnds this is for u it define the methods in the enginnering

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Published by: Gaurav Kumar on Dec 12, 2009
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Mathematical Methods of Engineering Analysis
Erhan C¸inlar Robert J. VanderbeiFebruary 2, 2000
 
Contents
Sets and Functions 1
1 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Subsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Set Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Disjoint Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Products of Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Functions and Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Injections, Surjections, Bijections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Countability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 On the Real Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Positive and Negative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Increasing, Decreasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Bounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Supremum and Inmum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Convergence of Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Ratio Test, Root Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Power Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Absolute Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Rearrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Metric Spaces 23
6 Euclidean Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Inner Product and Norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Euclidean Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Metric Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Distances from Points to Sets and from Sets to Sets . . . . . . 26Balls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Open and Closed Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Closed Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Interior, Closure, and Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30i
 
Open Subsets of the Real Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Subsequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Convergence and Closed Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3610 Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Cauchy Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Complete Metric Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3811 Compactness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Compact Subspaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Cluster Points, Convergence, Completeness . . . . . . . . . . 41Compactness in Euclidean Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Functions on Metric Spaces 45
12 Continuous Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Continuity and Open Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Continuity and Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47Real-Valued Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
R
n
-Valued Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4813 Compactness and Uniform Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Uniform Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5114 Sequences of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Cauchy Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Continuity of Limit Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5615 Spaces of Continuous Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Convergence in
C
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Lipschitz Continuous Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Functionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Differential and Integral Equations 63
16 Contraction Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Fixed Point Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6417 Systems of Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69Maximum Norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69Manhattan Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70Euclidean Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7118 Integral Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Fredholm Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Volterra Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Generalization of the Fixed Point Theorem . . . . . . . . . . 7719 Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78ii

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