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MB 0034 Set 2

MB 0034 Set 2

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MBA Semester 3Research MethodologyMB 00343 Credits
Assignment Set- 2Q 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of secondary data?Ans. Advantages and disadvantages of secondary Data
Secondary data can be described as the most widely used method for data collection. This process involves accessing information that is already gathered from either the originator or a distributor of Secondary research includes collecting information from third-partysources such as company websites, sales and accounting records, magazine articles andmarketing research reports. It also includes any previously gathered information used bythe marketer from any internal or external source.
Advantages:
 
Ease of Access
There are many advantages to using secondary research. This includes the relative ease of access to many sources of secondary data. In the past secondary data accumulationrequired marketers to visit libraries, or wait for reports to be shipped by mail. Now withthe availability of online access, secondary research is more openly accessed. This offersconvenience and generally standardized usage methods for all sources of secondaryresearch.
Low Cost to Acquire
The use of secondary data has allowed researchers access to valuable information for little or no cost to acquire. Therefore, this information is much less expensive then if theresearchers had to carry out the research themselves.
Clarification of Research Question
The use of secondary research may help the researcher to clarify the research question.Secondary research is often used prior to primary research to help clarify the researchfocus.
May Answer Research Question
The use of secondary data collection is often used to help align the focus of large scale primary research. When focusing on secondary research, the researcher may realize thatthe exact information they were looking to uncover is already available throughsecondary sources. This would effectively eliminate the need and expense to carry outthere own primary research.
May Show Difficulties in Conducting Primary Research
In many cases, the originators of secondary research include details of how theinformation was collected. This may include information detailing the procedures used indata collection and difficulties encountered in conducting the primary research.Therefore, the detailed difficulties may persuade the researcher to decide that the potential information obtained is not worth the potential difficulties in conducting theresearch.
 
Disadvantages:Quality of Research
There are some disadvantages to using secondary research. The originators of the primaryresearch are largely self-governed and controlled by the marketer. Therefore, thesecondary research used must be scrutinized closely since the origins of the informationmay be questionable. Moreover, the researcher needs to take sufficient steps to criticallyevaluate the validity and reliability of the information provided.
Not Specific to Researcher’s Needs
In many cases, secondary data is not presented in a form that exactly meets theresearcher’s needs. Therefore, the researcher needs to rely on secondary data that is presented and classified in a way that is similar to their needs.
Incomplete Information
In many cases, researchers find information that appears valuable and promising. Theresearcher may not get the full version of the research to gain the full value of the study.This is because many research suppliers offer free portions of their research and thencharge expensive fees for their full reports.
Not Timely
When using secondary research, one must exercise caution when using dated informationfrom the past. With companies competing in fast changing industries, an out-of-dateresearch reports many have little or no relevance to the current market situation.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the use of secondary research offers many significant advantages to theresearcher. It is important for the researcher to identify, reduce, and manage thedisadvantages that are accompanied by the use of secondary research.
Q 2 .
 
Explain the prerequisites and advantages of observation
.Ans.
Prerequisites and Advantages of observation
A narrative includes specific evidence of what occurred in a classroom.You can use this evidence to support claims you make when you talk withthe teacher after the observation.Carefully recorded notes will help you to remember what you observed when you later approach the task of interpreting and making judgments and when you talk with the teacher.If your purpose is improving instruction, the teacher needs to know notwhat her/his “grade” is or whether she/he is performing satisfactorily, butrather, exactly what needs to be improved. A narrative provides realexamples to use in discussing how something might have been donedifferently. Even if you only have good things to say about the teacher, it’s better to be specific about what was done well.A narrative is chronological. You simplywrite what you see as it happens.If this is your goal and your approach to the task of observing, you are less likely to miss something important than if you are searching for 
 
evidence related to various checklist items.Open-ended observation gives you theopportunity to record what happened in its natural context. Behavior only has meaningwhen you see it and interpret it in light of the setting: where it fit in the lesson, what thelearners were doing, what happened right before, how the learnersresponded, etc. Taking narrative notes reflects a measure of respect for the teacher. Your approach shows that you understand that teaching styles vary. There aremany different ways to be an effective teacher. You are literally there tolearn to see how she/he handles different learners and situations--not just to see how she/he measures up to a predetermined list ofcompetencies.Virginia Adult Learning Resource Center 2003 1-800-237-0178Disadvantages of ChecklistsSaphier (1993) points out the following flaws in the checklist approach todocumenting teacher observations.They never have enough categories to include every event you observe.According to Saphier, “the more categories there are, the more likely thisis to happen, since the categories become more specific.”There is usually no place to record supporting evidence for your claims.When you make a check or give a numerical rating, you are, in effect,making a claim. Saphier says even a form that allows space for commentsis less than ideal because the amount of white space provided limits whatyou can write.When you use a checklist, you note the presence of, or give the teacher arating on a certain behavior or quality. But according to Saphier, “Knowingthe presence or absence of a behavior is useless unless we know how itwas used, in what context…in other words if the behavior was usedappropriately.” He also says that checklists and other instruments with categories for organizing observations “efface the reader’s sense of the flow of theclass the way events unfolded.” Instead, a chronological narrative showshow events related to each other.Q 3. Discuss the stages involved in data collection
.
Ans. Stages Involved in Data Collection
This section describes how the discovery is divided into stages. The stages are subdividedinto phases. The discovery process can be divided into two stages—data collection anddata processing. Data Collection StageThe data collection stage involves interrogating the network for device information to produce a network topology. DISCO uses the finders, agents and helpers during the datacollection stage. The data collection stage can be further subdivided into a number of  phases, as explained below.
Data Collection Phase One
In the first phase of the discovery, finders identify all the devices that exist on thenetwork. Generally, a phase can only be completed when all the launched processes havecompleted their operation. However, although it may be desirable to wait until all deviceshave been discovered by the finders before proceeding to phase two, it is inefficient to

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