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P. 1
Korean So Gang

Korean So Gang

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Published by eightysix86

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Published by: eightysix86 on Dec 13, 2009
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04/20/2013

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LESSON 1
1.
Verb'
이다
' : to be
 
'
이다
' is the form which links a subject with its predicate, indicating equality or identification.If this form is attached to the noun, there can be no pause or space between it and the Noun. It is pronounced like a part of the Noun.It has two different forms '-
예요
' and '-
이에요
'. '-
예요
' is used when the Noun ends with a vowel, and '-
에요
' is used when the Noun ends with a consonant.
 
안나
+
-
예요
-->
안나예요
.
 
책상
+
-
이에요
-->
책상이에요
.
2.
'
' : yes
 
'
', which means 'yes', is often pronounced `
'. It is used as a regular response to a knock at the door, or hearing your name called, and being greeted. The opposite of `
' is `
아니오
'. This means 'no' is used innegative replies to questions, in contradictions and denials, and as an informal reply to apologies,expressions of thanks, and compliments.
3.
 
The subjective marker '-
/
'
 
The subjective marker `-
/
' is used to indicate that the preceding noun phrase is the subject of the sentence. ‘-
is used after a word which ends with a vowel, while `-
’ is used after a consonant.Here are some examples:
 
가방이
 
있어요
.
모자가
 
있어요
.
4.
 
The topic marker '-
/
'
 
While the subjective marker `-
/
' indicates the subject of a sentence,the topic marker `
/
' is used to indicate the comparison of topics. If there is no connotation of comparison withanother subject, this marker cannot be used. '-
' is used after words ending in a vowel, `-
' is used after wordsending in a consonant.Here are some examples:
 
이것이
 
연필이에요
.This is a pencil.
 
이것은
 
연필이에요
.This (in comparison with other things) is a pencil.
 
한국말이
 
재미있어요
.Korean is interesting.
 
한국말은
 
재미있어요
.Korean(in comparison with other languages) is interesting.
 
5.
 
,
,
 
(demonstrative)+NOUN : this/these ,it/their, that/those
 
5.1.
이게
,
그게
,
저게
 
These are the contractions of '
이것
,
그것
,
저것
` and the subjective marker '-
'.
'
이것
' is 'this thing.' '
'is a demonstrative which modifies the dependent noun '-
' and it is used only as a modifier of the following noun. '
이것
' indicates a thing which is close to the speaker. '
그것
' indicates a thingwhich is far from the speaker, but close to the listener. It can be also used as that thing or thosethings already under discussion. '
저것
' is used to indicate a thing which is far from both thelistener and the speaker.
이것
+
 ->
이게
 'this'
 (close to the speaker) 
 
그것
+
 ->
그게
 'that'
 (far from the speaker, close to the listener) 
저것
+
 ->
저게
 'that over there' (far from both the listener and the speaker)
 
5.2.
이건
,
그건
,
저건
These are the contractions of '
이것
,
그것
,
저것
' and the topic marker '-
'.
이것
+
->
이건
 'this' (close to the speaker) 
그것
+
->
그건
 'that' (far from the speaker, close to the listener) 
저것
+
->
저건
 'that over there' (far from both the listener and the speaker) A:
이게
 
뭐예요
?What is this? B:
그게
 
창문이에요
.It's window. A:
그럼
 
저건
 
뭐예요
?Then, what's that? B:
칠판이에요
.That's blackboard. 
5.3.
이분
,
그분
,
저분
 '
,
,
' can indicate persons with '
' which means person.
이분
'this person' (close to the speaker) 
그분
'that person' (far from the speaker, close to the listener)
저분
'that person over there' (far from both the listener and the speaker)There are no contracions when the subjective or topic markers follow'
이분
,
그분
,
저분
' like '
이분이
,
그분이
,
저분이
,
이분은
,
그분은
,
저분은
'.
이분이
 
안나씨
 
아버지예요
.
 
저분은
 
안나씨
 
동생이에요
. This person is Anna's father and that person is Anna's younger brother. 
6.
 
Verb '
아니다
' : not to be
 
This word is used for making negatives. You have already studied '
이다
`which indicates equality or identification. The '
이다
' is attached directly to a noun, and is pronounced as one wordwith the noun. When you make the negative construction of '
이다
', the subject marker '-
/
' is attached directly tothe noun, and then followed by the negative verb '
아니다
'.
이것이
 
의자예요
.<--->
 
이것이
 
의자가
 
아니예요
.
 
제가
 
호주사람이에요
.<--->
 
제가
 
호주사람이
 
아니예요
.
 
 
7.
 
Verb '
있다
/
없다
' : to be/not to be
 
The verb `
있다
' indicates existence, location or possession.The opposite verb is `
없다
'.
 
(Possesion)
 
동생
 
있어요
?
,
동생이
 
있어요
. Do you have a younger brother?Yes, I have a younger brother. 
아니오
,
동생이
 
없어요
.
그런데
 
언니는
 
있어요
.  No, I don't have a younger brother.But I have an older sister.
(Location)
 
교실에
 
책상이
 
있어요
?
,
책상이
 
있어요
. Is there a desk in the classroom?Yes, there is a desk (in the classroom) 
아니오
,
책상이
 
없어요
.
의자는
 
있어요
.  No, there is not a desk (in the classroom).But there is a chair. 
8.
 
The marker '-
' : at/in
This locative marker indicates that someone or something isstationary in a place. It is attached to nouns, and followed by '
있다
'(to be) and '
없다
'(not to be).
교실에
 
학생이
 
있어요
.There is a student in the classroom.

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