Regeneration and Improvement in Tropical Fruit Trees
1JOURNAL SUMMARYSrivastava, P.S., Narula, A., and Srivastava, S. 2004.
In vitro Regeneration and Improvement inTropical Fruit Trees: An Assessment
Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Markers
. 23(2): 345-361.
regeneration protocol has been developed for many tropical fruittrees by using juvenile as well as mature explants (stems is most popular; othersincluding shoot tip, nodes, and leaf).Organogenesis involves adventitious and axillary shoot production. Theadventitious shoot production comprises
shoot meristem formation fromcallus tissue or directly from organized tissues such as epidermal or subepidermalcells (examples including
). The axillaryshoot production involves shoot formation from axillary buds, shoot tips, andmeristems. Shoot tip culture is the basic technique for
(banana) propagation.The regenerated shoots are excised and used to produce additional shoots(successful on guava and
). The axillary shoot production is a direct methodinvolving multiplication of preformed buds, usually without any callus formation, andproduces in general, genetically stable cultures (done on
). Organogenesis of tropical fruit species have generally been based on
Murashige and Skoog’s
MSmedium. In most studies callus initiation and shoot induction have been reported onthe same medium which contains cytokinin (BAP mostly used) or a cytokinintogether with an auxin (NAA mostly used).Somatic embryogenesis is the process in which structures are formedcontaining a shoot and root connected by a closed vascular system (directlyanalogous to zygotic embryos). Nucellus has been the most appropriate explant forthis process (for at least 15 species). Somatic embryogenesis has been induceddirectly in cultured nucelli of
and indirectly in mango and papaya. Immaturezygotic embryo has also proved to be regenerable tissue for at least 5 species. Mostsuccessful media have been used for the induction of embryogenic cultures is basedon MS medium.In the tropical fruit trees androgenesis (anther culture) and plantletregeneration have been reported in
, sugar apple, papaya, longan, and
.The androgenic callus formation from
culture of anthers has been reported inguava and
. This method showed very promising result especially forcryopreservation, but an extensive research in this area is still needed.Somaclonal variation may be a practical approach for obtaining horticulturallyuseful traits in tropical fruit trees. Progress has been made with a few fruit species touse this technique to obtain disease resistance (
mango, andbanana), salt tolerance (
), thornlessness (
), and toxin resistance(
). Additional research still needs to be conducted to assess the phenotypic andgenotypic stability of these traits.