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In Vitro Regeneration and Improvement in Tropical Fruit Trees

In Vitro Regeneration and Improvement in Tropical Fruit Trees

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Published by Mahathir Mohmed
Considerable progress has been made in the recent past on in vitro plant regeneration via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in tropical fruit trees by manipulation of growth media and culture conditions as well as testing a variety of explant sources.
Considerable progress has been made in the recent past on in vitro plant regeneration via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in tropical fruit trees by manipulation of growth media and culture conditions as well as testing a variety of explant sources.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Mahathir Mohmed on Dec 13, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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11/04/2012

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In vitro
Regeneration and Improvement in Tropical Fruit Trees
1JOURNAL SUMMARYSrivastava, P.S., Narula, A., and Srivastava, S. 2004.
In vitro Regeneration and Improvement inTropical Fruit Trees: An Assessment
Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Markers
. 23(2): 345-361.
In vitro
regeneration protocol has been developed for many tropical fruittrees by using juvenile as well as mature explants (stems is most popular; othersincluding shoot tip, nodes, and leaf).Organogenesis involves adventitious and axillary shoot production. Theadventitious shoot production comprises
de novo
shoot meristem formation fromcallus tissue or directly from organized tissues such as epidermal or subepidermalcells (examples including
 Annona squamosa
and
Garcinia mangostana
). The axillaryshoot production involves shoot formation from axillary buds, shoot tips, andmeristems. Shoot tip culture is the basic technique for
Musa
(banana) propagation.The regenerated shoots are excised and used to produce additional shoots(successful on guava and
Citrus
). The axillary shoot production is a direct methodinvolving multiplication of preformed buds, usually without any callus formation, andproduces in general, genetically stable cultures (done on
Citrus
). Organogenesis of tropical fruit species have generally been based on
Murashige and Skoog’s
MSmedium. In most studies callus initiation and shoot induction have been reported onthe same medium which contains cytokinin (BAP mostly used) or a cytokinintogether with an auxin (NAA mostly used).Somatic embryogenesis is the process in which structures are formedcontaining a shoot and root connected by a closed vascular system (directlyanalogous to zygotic embryos). Nucellus has been the most appropriate explant forthis process (for at least 15 species). Somatic embryogenesis has been induceddirectly in cultured nucelli of 
Citrus
and indirectly in mango and papaya. Immaturezygotic embryo has also proved to be regenerable tissue for at least 5 species. Mostsuccessful media have been used for the induction of embryogenic cultures is basedon MS medium.In the tropical fruit trees androgenesis (anther culture) and plantletregeneration have been reported in
Citrus
, sugar apple, papaya, longan, and
Litchi 
.The androgenic callus formation from
in vitro
culture of anthers has been reported inguava and
Feijoa
. This method showed very promising result especially forcryopreservation, but an extensive research in this area is still needed.Somaclonal variation may be a practical approach for obtaining horticulturallyuseful traits in tropical fruit trees. Progress has been made with a few fruit species touse this technique to obtain disease resistance (
Citrus aurantifolia,
mango, andbanana), salt tolerance (
Citrus sinensis
), thornlessness (
Citrus
), and toxin resistance(
Citrus
). Additional research still needs to be conducted to assess the phenotypic andgenotypic stability of these traits.

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